PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Archive for "Surgery"

Category: Surgery

Hot Topics: Botox May Help Aftermath of Cardiac Surgery

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research, Surgery

Long-term suppression of atrial fibrillation by botulinum toxin injection into epicardial fat pads in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Three-year follow-up of a randomized study

Romanov A, Pokushalov E, Ponomarev D, et al. Long-term suppression of atrial fibrillation by botulinum toxin injection into epicardial fat pads in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Three-year follow-up of a randomized study. Heart Rhythm. 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.08.019

Background
Botulinum toxin (BTX) injections into epicardial fat pads in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has resulted in suppression of atrial fibrillation (AF) during the early postoperative period through 1-year of follow-up in a pilot program.

Objective
The purpose of this study was to report 3-year AF patterns by the use of implantable cardiac monitors (ICMs).

Methods
Sixty patients with a history of paroxysmal AF and indications for CABG were randomized 1:1 to either BTX or placebo injections into 4 posterior epicardial fat pads. All patients received an ICM with regular follow-up for 3 years after surgery. The primary end point of the extended follow-up period was incidence of any atrial tachyarrhythmia after 30 days of procedure until 36 months on no antiarrhythmic drugs. The secondary end points included clinical events and AF burden.

Results
At the end of 36 months, the incidence of any atrial tachyarrhythmia was 23.3% in the BTX group vs 50% in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.36; 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.88; P = .02). AF burden at 12, 24, and 36 months was significantly lower in the BTX group than in the placebo group: 0.22% vs 1.88% ( P = .003), 1.6% vs 9.5% ( P < .001), and 1.3% vs 6.9% ( P = .007), respectively. In the BTX group, 2 patients (7%) were hospitalized during follow-up compared with 10 (33%) in the placebo group ( P = .02).

Conclusion
Injection of BTX into epicardial fat pads in patients undergoing CABG resulted in a sustained and substantial reduction in atrial tachyarrhythmia incidence and burden during 3-year follow-up, accompanied by reduction in hospitalizations.

Hot Topics: Anesthesiology Should Look to Neuroscience and Nociception

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Surgery

Multimodal General Anesthesia: Theory and Practice

Brown EN, Pavone KJ, Naranjo M. Multimodal general anesthesia: Theory and practice. Anesthesia & Analgesia. http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003668

Balanced general anesthesia, the most common management strategy used in anesthesia care, entails the administration of different drugs together to create the anesthetic state. Anesthesiologists developed this approach to avoid sole reliance on ether for general anesthesia maintenance. Balanced general anesthesia uses less of each drug than if the drug were administered alone, thereby increasing the likelihood of its desired effects and reducing the likelihood of its side effects. To manage nociception intraoperatively and pain postoperatively, the current practice of balanced general anesthesia relies almost exclusively on opioids. While opioids are the most effective antinociceptive agents, they have undesirable side effects. Moreover, overreliance on opioids has contributed to the opioid epidemic in the United States. Spurred by concern of opioid overuse, balanced general anesthesia strategies are now using more agents to create the anesthetic state. Under these approaches, called “multimodal general anesthesia,” the additional drugs may include agents with specific central nervous system targets such as dexmedetomidine and ones with less specific targets, such as magnesium. It is postulated that use of more agents at smaller doses further maximizes desired effects while minimizing side effects. Although this approach appears to maximize the benefit-to-side effect ratio, no rational strategy has been provided for choosing the drug combinations. Nociception induced by surgery is the primary reason for placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia. Hence, any rational strategy should focus on nociception control intraoperatively and pain control postoperatively. In this Special Article, we review the anatomy and physiology of the nociceptive and arousal circuits, and the mechanisms through which commonly used anesthetics and anesthetic adjuncts act in these systems. We propose a rational strategy for multimodal general anesthesia predicated on choosing a combination of agents that act at different targets in the nociceptive system to control nociception intraoperatively and pain postoperatively. Because these agents also decrease arousal, the doses of hypnotics and/or inhaled ethers needed to control unconsciousness are reduced. Effective use of this strategy requires simultaneous monitoring of antinociception and level of unconsciousness. We illustrate the application of this strategy by summarizing anesthetic management for 4 representative surgeries.

Hot Topics: Opioids Overprescribed After Joint and Spine Surgery

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rheumatology, Surgery

Opioid Oversupply After Joint and Spine Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

Bicket MC, White E, Pronovost PJ, Wu CL, Yaster M, Alexander GC. Opioid oversupply after joint and spine surgery: A prospective cohort study. Anesth Analg. 2018. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003364.

BACKGROUND: Many patients receive prescription opioids at hospital discharge after surgery, yet little is known regarding how often these opioids go unused. We estimated the prevalence of unused opioids, use of nonopioid analgesics, and storage and disposal practices after same-day and inpatient surgery.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study at a large, inner-city tertiary care hospital, we recruited individuals ≥18 years of age undergoing elective same-day or inpatient joint and spine surgery from August to November 2016. Using patient surveys via telephone calls, we assessed patient-reported outcomes at 2-day, 2-week, 1-month, and 6-month intervals, including: (1) stopping opioid treatment and in possession of unused opioid pills (primary outcome), (2) number of unused opioid tablets reported after stopping opioids, (3) use of nonopioid pain treatments, and (4) knowledge and practice regarding safe opioid storage and disposal.

RESULTS: Of 141 eligible patients, 140 (99%) consented (35% taking preoperative opioids; mean age 56 years [standard deviation 16 years]; 47% women). One- and 6-month follow-up was achieved for 115 (82%) and 110 patients (80%), respectively. Among patients who stopped opioid therapy, possession of unused opioids was reported by 73% (95% confidence intervals, 62%-82%) at 1-month follow-up and 34% (confidence interval, 24%-45%) at 6-month follow-up. At 1 month, 46% had ≥20 unused pills, 37% had ≥200 morphine milligram equivalents, and only 6% reported using multiple nonopioid adjuncts. Many patients reported unsafe storage and failure to dispose of opioids at both 1-month (91% and 96%, respectively) and 6-month (92% and 47%, respectively) follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: After joint and spine surgery, many patients reported unused opioids, infrequent use of analgesic alternatives, and lack of knowledge regarding safe opioid storage and disposal. Interventions are needed to better tailor postoperative analgesia and improve the safe storage and disposal of prescription opioids.

Hot Topics: Customized 3-D Models Effectively Train Children’s Surgeons

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Surgery

Patient-specific 3D models aid planning for triplane proximal femoral osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

Cherkasskiy L, Caffrey JP, Szewczyk AF, et al. Patient-specific 3D models aid planning for triplane proximal femoral osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Child Orthop. 2017;11(2):147-153. https://doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548-11-170277.

Purpose
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) can result in a complex three-dimensional (3D) deformity of the proximal femur. A three-plane proximal femoral osteotomy (TPFO) has been described to improve hip mechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using 3D print technology to aid in surgical planning.

Patients and Methods
Fifteen children treated with TPFO for symptomatic proximal femoral deformity due to SCFE were included in this study. Ten patients were treated by a single surgeon with (model group, n = 5) or without (no-model group, n = 5) a 3D model for pre-operative planning, and compared with patients treated by two senior partners without the use of a model (senior group, n = 5) to evaluate for a learning curve. Peri-operative data including patient body mass index (BMI), surgical time and fluoroscopy time were recorded.

Results
Children in all three groups had similar BMIs at the time of the TPFO. Post-operative radiographic parameters were equally improved in all three groups. On average, surgical time decreased by 45 minutes and 38 minutes, and fluoroscopy time decreased by 50% and 25%, in the model group compared with the no-model and senior groups, respectively.

Conclusions
Patient-specific 3D models aid in surgical planning for complex 3D orthopaedic deformities by enabling practice of osteotomies. Results suggest that 3D models may decrease surgical time and fluoroscopy time while allowing for similar deformity correction. These models may be especially useful to overcome steep learning curves for complex procedures or in trainee education through mock surgical procedures.