Category: Oncology

Hot Topics: Financial Concerns Hinder Younger Cancer Survivors’ Treatment Compliance

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Do cancer survivors change their prescription drug use for financial reasons? Findings from a nationally representative sample in the United States Zheng Z, Han X, Guy GP, et al. Do cancer survivors change their prescription drug use for financial reasons? Findings from a nationally representative sample in the United States. Cancer. 2017:n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30560. BACKGROUND There is limited evidence from nationally representative samples about changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons among cancer survivors in the United States. METHODS The 2011 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify adults who reported ever having been told they had…

Hot Topics: Larger Racial Disparity in Cervical Cancer Gap Than Previously Estimated

Jackie Werner Front Page, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States Beavis AL, Gravitt PE, Rositch AF. Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States. Cancer. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30507. BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine the age-standardized and age-specific annual US cervical cancer mortality rates after correction for the prevalence of hysterectomy and to evaluate disparities by age and race. METHODS Estimates for deaths due to cervical cancer stratified by age, state, year, and race were derived from the National Center for Health Statistics county mortality data (2000-2012). Equivalently…

Hot Topics: New Free Database Crowdsources Cancer Mutation Research

Jackie Werner Front Page, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

CIViC is a Community Knowledgebase for Expert Crowdsourcing the Clinical Interpretation of Variants in Cancer Griffith M, Spies NC, Krysiak K, et al. CIViC is a community knowledgebase for expert crowdsourcing the clinical interpretation of variants in cancer. Nat Genet. 2017;49(2):170-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3774. CIViC is an expert-crowdsourced knowledgebase for Clinical Interpretation of Variants in Cancer describing the therapeutic, prognostic, diagnostic and predisposing relevance of inherited and somatic variants of all types. CIViC is committed to open-source code, open-access content, public application programming interfaces (APIs) and provenance of supporting evidence to allow for the transparent creation of current and accurate variant interpretations…

Sexual Health in Women Affected by Cancer: Focus on Sexual Pain

PJ Grier December, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Sexual Health in Women Affected by Cancer: Focus on Sexual Pain As cancer therapies improve, the number of women surviving or living long lives with cancer continues to increase. Treatment modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, affect sexual function and may cause sexual pain through a variety of mechanisms, depending on treatment type. Adverse sexual effects resulting from ovarian damage, anatomic alterations, and neurologic, myofascial, or pelvic organ injury may affect more than half of women affected by cancer. Despite the fact that no specialty is better qualified to render care for this consequence of cancer treatments, many…

Long-term benefits and risks of frontline nilotinib vs imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: 5-year update of the randomized ENESTnd trial

PJ Grier August, Blood, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Long-term benefits and risks of frontline nilotinib vs imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: 5-year update of the randomized ENESTnd trial In the phase 3 Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials–Newly Diagnosed Patients (ENESTnd) study, nilotinib resulted in earlier and higher response rates and a lower risk of progression to accelerated phase/blast crisis (AP/BC) than imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Here, patients’ long-term outcomes in ENESTnd are evaluated after a minimum follow-up of 5 years. By 5 years, more than half of all patients in each nilotinib arm…

Association Between Treatment at a High-Volume Facility and Improved Survival for Radiation-Treated Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

PJ Grier April, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Prostate

Association Between Treatment at a High-Volume Facility and Improved Survival for Radiation-Treated Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Purpose: Although the association between higher hospital volume and improved outcomes has been well-documented in surgery, there is little data about whether this effect exists for radiation-treated patients. We investigated whether treatment at a radiation facility that treats a high volume of prostate cancer patients is associated with improved survival for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We used the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to identity patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2006. The radiation case volume (RCV) of each…

Antithrombotic Therapy for VTE Disease: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report

PJ Grier Blood, Hot Topics in Research, Lung, March, Research Commentary

Antithrombotic Therapy for VTE Disease: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report BACKGROUND: We update recommendations on 12 topics that were in the 9th edition of these guidelines, and address 3 new topics. METHODS: We generate strong (Grade 1) and weak (Grade 2) recommendations based on high- (Grade A), moderate- (Grade B), and low- (Grade C) quality evidence. RESULTS: For VTE and no cancer, as long-term anticoagulant therapy, we suggest dabigatran (Grade 2B), rivaroxaban (Grade 2B), apixaban (Grade 2B), or edoxaban (Grade 2B) over vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy, and suggest VKA therapy over low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH; Grade 2C). For VTE…

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study

PJ Grier Brain, February, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pediatrics

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study Background Compared with traditional photon radiotherapy, proton radiotherapy irradiates less normal tissue and might improve health outcomes associated with photon radiotherapy by reducing toxic effects to normal tissue. We did a trial to assess late complications, acute side-effects, and survival associated with proton radiotherapy in children with medulloblastoma. Methods In this non-randomised, open-label, single-centre, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 3–21 years who had medulloblastoma. Patients had craniospinal irradiation of 18–36 Gy radiobiological equivalents (GyRBE) delivered at 1·8 GyRBE per fraction followed by a boost…

Prostate cancer discovery may make it easier to kill cancer cells

PJ Grier Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Prostate, Uncategorized

Checkpoint Kinase 2 Negatively Regulates Androgen Sensitivity and Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Abstract: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, and curing metastatic disease remains a significant challenge. Nearly all patients with disseminated prostate cancer initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but virtually all patients will relapse and develop incurable castrationresistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A high-throughput RNAi screen to identify signaling pathways regulating prostate cancer cell growth led to our discovery that checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) knockdown dramatically increased prostate cancer growth and hypersensitized cells to low androgen levels. Mechanistic investigations revealed that…