Category: Oncology

Hot Topics: Childhood Cancer Tumor Pathway Discovered Through Zebrafish

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pediatrics

PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish models identify HES3 as a mediator of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis Kendall GC, Watson S, Xu L, et al. PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish models identify HES3 as a mediator of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis. eLife. 2018;7:e33800. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33800. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma caused by PAX3/7-FOXO1fusion oncogenes and is characterized by impaired skeletal muscle development. We developed human PAX3-FOXO1 -driven zebrafish models of tumorigenesis and found that PAX3-FOXO1 exhibits discrete cell lineage susceptibility and transformation. Tumors developed by 1.6–19 months and were primitive neuroectodermal tumors or rhabdomyosarcoma. We applied this PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish model to study how PAX3-FOXO1 leverages early developmental pathways for oncogenesis and found that her3 is a unique target. Ectopic expression…

Hot Topics: Animal Model May Show How to Reduce Chemotherapy Pain

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Chemotherapy-induced pain is promoted by enhanced spinal adenosine kinase levels through astrocyte-dependent mechanisms Wahlman C, Doyle TM, Little JW, et al. Chemotherapy-induced pain is promoted by enhanced spinal adenosine kinase levels through astrocyte-dependent mechanisms. Pain. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001177 Development of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CINP) compromises the use of chemotherapy and greatly impacts thousands of lives. Unfortunately, there are no Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs to prevent or treat CINP. Neuropathological changes within CNS, including neuroinflammation and increased neuronal excitability, are driven by alterations in neuro-glia communication; but, the molecular signaling pathways remain largely unexplored. Adenosine is a potent neuroprotective purine nucleoside released to counteract the…

Hot Topics: Mass Spectroscopy “Cancer Pen” Could Quickly Detect Tumors

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Uncategorized

Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system Zhang J, Rector J, Lin JQ, et al. Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system. Science Translational Medicine. 2017;9(406). http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aan3968 Conventional methods for histopathologic tissue diagnosis are labor- and time-intensive and can delay decision-making during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. We report the development of an automated and biocompatible handheld mass spectrometry device for rapid and nondestructive diagnosis of human cancer tissues. The device, named MasSpec Pen, enables controlled and automated delivery of a discrete…

Hot Topics: Combination of Traditional and New Drugs Effective for Esophageal Cancer

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Inhibition of pRB pathway differentially modulates apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells Soletti RC, Biasoli D, Rodrigues NALV, et al. Inhibition of pRB pathway differentially modulates apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Translational Oncology. 2017;10(5):726-733. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2017.06.008. Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current chemotherapy regimens include a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin, but more efficient therapy strategies are needed to increase 5-year survival. Alterations in the signaling pathway of the tumor suppressor gene Rb-1, which encodes a phosphoprotein (pRB) that negatively regulates the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, are present in 70% of all tumors, but…

Hot Topics: Financial Concerns Hinder Younger Cancer Survivors’ Treatment Compliance

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Do cancer survivors change their prescription drug use for financial reasons? Findings from a nationally representative sample in the United States Zheng Z, Han X, Guy GP, et al. Do cancer survivors change their prescription drug use for financial reasons? Findings from a nationally representative sample in the United States. Cancer. 2017:n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30560. BACKGROUND There is limited evidence from nationally representative samples about changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons among cancer survivors in the United States. METHODS The 2011 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify adults who reported ever having been told they had…

Hot Topics: Larger Racial Disparity in Cervical Cancer Gap Than Previously Estimated

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States Beavis AL, Gravitt PE, Rositch AF. Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States. Cancer. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30507. BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine the age-standardized and age-specific annual US cervical cancer mortality rates after correction for the prevalence of hysterectomy and to evaluate disparities by age and race. METHODS Estimates for deaths due to cervical cancer stratified by age, state, year, and race were derived from the National Center for Health Statistics county mortality data (2000-2012). Equivalently…

Hot Topics: New Free Database Crowdsources Cancer Mutation Research

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

CIViC is a Community Knowledgebase for Expert Crowdsourcing the Clinical Interpretation of Variants in Cancer Griffith M, Spies NC, Krysiak K, et al. CIViC is a community knowledgebase for expert crowdsourcing the clinical interpretation of variants in cancer. Nat Genet. 2017;49(2):170-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3774. CIViC is an expert-crowdsourced knowledgebase for Clinical Interpretation of Variants in Cancer describing the therapeutic, prognostic, diagnostic and predisposing relevance of inherited and somatic variants of all types. CIViC is committed to open-source code, open-access content, public application programming interfaces (APIs) and provenance of supporting evidence to allow for the transparent creation of current and accurate variant interpretations…

Sexual Health in Women Affected by Cancer: Focus on Sexual Pain

PJ Grier December, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Sexual Health in Women Affected by Cancer: Focus on Sexual Pain As cancer therapies improve, the number of women surviving or living long lives with cancer continues to increase. Treatment modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, affect sexual function and may cause sexual pain through a variety of mechanisms, depending on treatment type. Adverse sexual effects resulting from ovarian damage, anatomic alterations, and neurologic, myofascial, or pelvic organ injury may affect more than half of women affected by cancer. Despite the fact that no specialty is better qualified to render care for this consequence of cancer treatments, many…

Long-term benefits and risks of frontline nilotinib vs imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: 5-year update of the randomized ENESTnd trial

PJ Grier August, Blood, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Long-term benefits and risks of frontline nilotinib vs imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: 5-year update of the randomized ENESTnd trial In the phase 3 Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials–Newly Diagnosed Patients (ENESTnd) study, nilotinib resulted in earlier and higher response rates and a lower risk of progression to accelerated phase/blast crisis (AP/BC) than imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Here, patients’ long-term outcomes in ENESTnd are evaluated after a minimum follow-up of 5 years. By 5 years, more than half of all patients in each nilotinib arm…