PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Archive for "Pediatrics"

Category: Pediatrics

Hot Topics: Mothers with Anti-Vaccine Friends and Family Delay Babies’ Shots

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics

Vaccine Education During Pregnancy and Timeliness of Infant Immunization Veerasingam P, Grant CC, Chelimo C, et al. Vaccine education during pregnancy and timeliness of infant immunization. Pediatrics. 2017. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3727 OBJECTIVES: Pregnant women routinely receive information in support of or opposing infant immunization. We aimed to describe immunization information sources of future mothers’ and determine if receiving immunization information is associated with infant immunization timeliness. METHODS: We analyzed data from a child cohort born 2009–2010 in New Zealand. Pregnant women (N = 6822) at a median gestation of 39 weeks described sources of information encouraging or discouraging infant immunization. Immunizations received by cohort infants…

Hot Topics: Customized 3-D Models Effectively Train Children’s Surgeons

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Surgery

Patient-specific 3D models aid planning for triplane proximal femoral osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis Cherkasskiy L, Caffrey JP, Szewczyk AF, et al. Patient-specific 3D models aid planning for triplane proximal femoral osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Child Orthop. 2017;11(2):147-153. https://doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548-11-170277. Purpose Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) can result in a complex three-dimensional (3D) deformity of the proximal femur. A three-plane proximal femoral osteotomy (TPFO) has been described to improve hip mechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using 3D print technology to aid in surgical planning. Patients and Methods Fifteen children treated with TPFO…

Hot Topics: SIDS Infants Show High Levels of Serotonin in Blood

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics

High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome Haynes RL, Frelinger AL, Giles EK, et al. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2017. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1617374114. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical in homeostatic regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIDS is associated with an alteration in serum…

Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities

PJ Grier Hot Topics in Research, March, Pediatrics

Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities OBJECTIVE: Transgender children who have socially transitioned, that is, who identify as the gender “opposite” their natal sex and are supported to live openly as that gender, are increasingly visible in society, yet we know nothing about their mental health. Previous work with children with gender identity disorder (GID; now termed gender dysphoria) has found remarkably high rates of anxiety and depression in these children. Here we examine, for the first time, mental health in a sample of socially transitioned transgender children. METHODS: A community-based national sample of transgender,…

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study

PJ Grier Brain, February, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pediatrics

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study Background Compared with traditional photon radiotherapy, proton radiotherapy irradiates less normal tissue and might improve health outcomes associated with photon radiotherapy by reducing toxic effects to normal tissue. We did a trial to assess late complications, acute side-effects, and survival associated with proton radiotherapy in children with medulloblastoma. Methods In this non-randomised, open-label, single-centre, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 3–21 years who had medulloblastoma. Patients had craniospinal irradiation of 18–36 Gy radiobiological equivalents (GyRBE) delivered at 1·8 GyRBE per fraction followed by a boost…