PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research"

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics: Physicians in Small Practices Burn Out Less

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Psychology and Psychiatry, Research and Scholarly Communication

Correlates of Burnout in Small Independent Primary Care Practices in an Urban Setting Blechter B, Jiang N, Cleland C, Berry C, Ogedegbe O, Shelley D. Correlates of burnout in small independent primary care practices in an urban setting. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2018;31(4):529-536. http://www.doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2018.04.170360. Background: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of burnout among providers who work in small independent primary care practices (<5 providers). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis by using data collected from 235 providers practicing in 174 small independent primary care practices in New York City. Results: The rate of provider-reported burnout was 13.5%….

Hot Topics: Metabolite Constellation Predicts Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Rheumatology

Insights into myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome phenotypes through comprehensive metabolomics Nagy-Szakal D, Barupal DK, Lee B, et al. Insights into myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome phenotypes through comprehensive metabolomics. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1):10056. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28477-9. The pathogenesis of ME/CFS, a disease characterized by fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and lymphadenopathy, is poorly understood. We report biomarker discovery and topological analysis of plasma metabolomic, fecal bacterial metagenomic, and clinical data from 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls. We confirm reports of altered plasma levels of choline, carnitine and complex lipid metabolites and demonstrate that patients with ME/CFS and…

Hot Topics: Ketamine Could Be Alternative to Opioids in ER

Jackie Werner Emergency Medicine, Hot Topics in Research

A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis of Ketamine as an Alternative to Opioids for Acute Pain in the Emergency Department Nicholas K, Schlaepfer CH, Stoll CR, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of ketamine as an alternative to opioids for acute pain in the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13502. Background Opioids are commonly prescribed in the emergency department (ED) for the treatment of acute pain. Analgesic alternatives are being explored in response to an epidemic of opioid misuse. Low‐dose ketamine (LDK) is one opioid alternative for the treatment of acute pain in the ED. Objectives This systematic review and meta‐analysis sought…

Hot Topics: Neurons Can Carry Simultaneous Signals

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research

Single neurons may encode simultaneous stimuli by switching between activity patterns Caruso VC, Mohl JT, Glynn C, et al. Single neurons may encode simultaneous stimuli by switching between activity patterns. Nature Communications. 2018;9(1):2715. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05121-8. How the brain preserves information about multiple simultaneous items is poorly understood. We report that single neurons can represent multiple stimuli by interleaving signals across time. We record single units in an auditory region, the inferior colliculus, while monkeys localize 1 or 2 simultaneous sounds. During dual-sound trials, we find that some neurons fluctuate between firing rates observed for each single sound, either on a whole-trial or on…

Hot Topics: Orientation and Gender Assumptions Can Harm Patient/Doctor Relationship

Jackie Werner Ethics, Hot Topics in Research, Psychology and Psychiatry

Provider Perspectives on the Application of Patient Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Clinical Care: A Qualitative Study Dichter ME, Ogden SN, Scheffey KL. Provider perspectives on the application of patient sexual orientation and gender identity in clinical care: A qualitative study. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-018-4489-4. Background The federal government and other organizations have recommended that healthcare institutions collect and document patient sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) information in order to advance the understanding of the health of sexual and gender minority populations and to combat existing health disparities. Little is known, however, about provider perception of the…

Hot Topics: New Technology Could Allow Dementia Patients to Live Alone Longer

Jackie Werner Dementia, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Health management and pattern analysis of daily living activities of people with dementia using in-home sensors and machine learning techniques Enshaeifar S, Zoha A, Markides A, et al. Health management and pattern analysis of daily living activities of people with dementia using in-home sensors and machine learning techniques. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(5):e0195605. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195605. The number of people diagnosed with dementia is expected to rise in the coming years. Given that there is currently no definite cure for dementia and the cost of care for this condition soars dramatically, slowing the decline and maintaining independent living are important goals for supporting people with dementia….

Hot Topics: New Drug Improves Bladder Function After Spinal Cord Injury

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Role of proNGF/p75 signaling in bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury Ryu JC, Tooke K, Malley SE, et al. Role of proNGF/p75 signaling in bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury. J Clin Invest. 2018;128(5):1772-1786. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI97837 Loss of bladder control is a challenging outcome facing patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We report that systemic blocking of pro–nerve growth factor (proNGF) signaling through p75 with a CNS-penetrating small-molecule p75 inhibitor resulted in significant improvement in bladder function after SCI in rodents. The usual hyperreflexia was attenuated with normal bladder pressure, and automatic micturition was acquired weeks earlier than in the controls. The improvement…

Hot Topics: Childhood Cancer Tumor Pathway Discovered Through Zebrafish

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pediatrics

PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish models identify HES3 as a mediator of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis Kendall GC, Watson S, Xu L, et al. PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish models identify HES3 as a mediator of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis. eLife. 2018;7:e33800. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33800. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma caused by PAX3/7-FOXO1fusion oncogenes and is characterized by impaired skeletal muscle development. We developed human PAX3-FOXO1 -driven zebrafish models of tumorigenesis and found that PAX3-FOXO1 exhibits discrete cell lineage susceptibility and transformation. Tumors developed by 1.6–19 months and were primitive neuroectodermal tumors or rhabdomyosarcoma. We applied this PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish model to study how PAX3-FOXO1 leverages early developmental pathways for oncogenesis and found that her3 is a unique target. Ectopic expression…

Hot Topics: Opioids Overprescribed After Joint and Spine Surgery

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rheumatology, Surgery

Opioid Oversupply After Joint and Spine Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study Bicket MC, White E, Pronovost PJ, Wu CL, Yaster M, Alexander GC. Opioid oversupply after joint and spine surgery: A prospective cohort study. Anesth Analg. 2018. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003364. BACKGROUND: Many patients receive prescription opioids at hospital discharge after surgery, yet little is known regarding how often these opioids go unused. We estimated the prevalence of unused opioids, use of nonopioid analgesics, and storage and disposal practices after same-day and inpatient surgery. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study at a large, inner-city tertiary care hospital, we recruited individuals ≥18 years of age…

Hot Topics: Palliative Care Lowers Overall Hospital Costs

Jackie Werner Critical Care, Geriatrics

Economics of Palliative Care for Hospitalized Adults With Serious Illness: A Meta-analysis May P, Normand C, Cassel J, et a. Economics of palliative care for hospitalized adults with serious illness: A meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2018. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0750. Importance  Economics of care for adults with serious illness is a policy priority worldwide. Palliative care may lower costs for hospitalized adults, but the evidence has important limitations. Objective  To estimate the association of palliative care consultation (PCC) with direct hospital costs for adults with serious illness. Data Sources  Systematic searches of the Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, PubMed, CINAHL, and EconLit databases were performed for English-language journal…