PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research"

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics: New Technology Could Allow Dementia Patients to Live Alone Longer

Jackie Werner Dementia, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Health management and pattern analysis of daily living activities of people with dementia using in-home sensors and machine learning techniques Enshaeifar S, Zoha A, Markides A, et al. Health management and pattern analysis of daily living activities of people with dementia using in-home sensors and machine learning techniques. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(5):e0195605. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195605. The number of people diagnosed with dementia is expected to rise in the coming years. Given that there is currently no definite cure for dementia and the cost of care for this condition soars dramatically, slowing the decline and maintaining independent living are important goals for supporting people with dementia….

Hot Topics: New Drug Improves Bladder Function After Spinal Cord Injury

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Role of proNGF/p75 signaling in bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury Ryu JC, Tooke K, Malley SE, et al. Role of proNGF/p75 signaling in bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury. J Clin Invest. 2018;128(5):1772-1786. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI97837 Loss of bladder control is a challenging outcome facing patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We report that systemic blocking of pro–nerve growth factor (proNGF) signaling through p75 with a CNS-penetrating small-molecule p75 inhibitor resulted in significant improvement in bladder function after SCI in rodents. The usual hyperreflexia was attenuated with normal bladder pressure, and automatic micturition was acquired weeks earlier than in the controls. The improvement…

Hot Topics: Childhood Cancer Tumor Pathway Discovered Through Zebrafish

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pediatrics

PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish models identify HES3 as a mediator of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis Kendall GC, Watson S, Xu L, et al. PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish models identify HES3 as a mediator of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis. eLife. 2018;7:e33800. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33800. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma caused by PAX3/7-FOXO1fusion oncogenes and is characterized by impaired skeletal muscle development. We developed human PAX3-FOXO1 -driven zebrafish models of tumorigenesis and found that PAX3-FOXO1 exhibits discrete cell lineage susceptibility and transformation. Tumors developed by 1.6–19 months and were primitive neuroectodermal tumors or rhabdomyosarcoma. We applied this PAX3-FOXO1 transgenic zebrafish model to study how PAX3-FOXO1 leverages early developmental pathways for oncogenesis and found that her3 is a unique target. Ectopic expression…

Hot Topics: Opioids Overprescribed After Joint and Spine Surgery

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rheumatology, Surgery

Opioid Oversupply After Joint and Spine Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study Bicket MC, White E, Pronovost PJ, Wu CL, Yaster M, Alexander GC. Opioid oversupply after joint and spine surgery: A prospective cohort study. Anesth Analg. 2018. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003364. BACKGROUND: Many patients receive prescription opioids at hospital discharge after surgery, yet little is known regarding how often these opioids go unused. We estimated the prevalence of unused opioids, use of nonopioid analgesics, and storage and disposal practices after same-day and inpatient surgery. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study at a large, inner-city tertiary care hospital, we recruited individuals ≥18 years of age…

Hot Topics: Palliative Care Lowers Overall Hospital Costs

Jackie Werner Critical Care, Geriatrics

Economics of Palliative Care for Hospitalized Adults With Serious Illness: A Meta-analysis May P, Normand C, Cassel J, et a. Economics of palliative care for hospitalized adults with serious illness: A meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2018. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0750. Importance  Economics of care for adults with serious illness is a policy priority worldwide. Palliative care may lower costs for hospitalized adults, but the evidence has important limitations. Objective  To estimate the association of palliative care consultation (PCC) with direct hospital costs for adults with serious illness. Data Sources  Systematic searches of the Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, PubMed, CINAHL, and EconLit databases were performed for English-language journal…

Hot Topics: Communication Difficulties in Children with Autism Linked to Suicidal Behavior

Jackie Werner Developmental Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics

Autistic Traits and Suicidal Thoughts, Plans, and Self-Harm in Late Adolescence: Population-Based Cohort Study Culpin I, Mars B, Pearson RM, et al. Autistic traits and suicidal thoughts, plans, and self-harm in late adolescence: Population-based cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2018;57(5):320.e6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.01.023. Objective To examine the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnosis and traits in childhood are associated with suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm at 16 years, and that any observed associations are explained by depression at 12 years. Method We examined associations between ASD diagnosis and 4 dichotomized ASD traits (social communication, pragmatic language,…

Hot Topics: Gut Bacteria May Change Course of Atherosclerosis

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Metabolic Products of the Intestinal Microbiome and Extremes of Atherosclerosis Bogiatzi C, Gloor G, Allen-Vercoe E, et al. Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome and extremes of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2018;273:91-97. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.04.015. Background and aims There is increasing awareness that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in human health. We investigated its role in the burden of carotid atherosclerosis, measured by ultrasound as total plaque area. Methods Multiple regression with traditional risk factors was used to identify three phenotypes among 316/3056 patients attending vascular prevention clinics. Residual score (RES; i.e. the distance off the regression line, similar to standard deviation) was…

Hot Topics: Computers Trained to Visually Analyze Living Cells

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research

In Silico Labeling: Predicting Fluorescent Labels in Unlabeled Images Christiansen EM, Yang SJ, Ando DM, et al. In silico labeling: Predicting fluorescent labels in unlabeled images. Cell. 2018;173(3):803.e19. doi: S0092-8674(18)30364-7. Microscopy is a central method in life sciences. Many popular methods, such as antibody labeling, are used to add physical fluorescent labels to specific cellular constituents. However, these approaches have significant drawbacks, including inconsistency; limitations in the number of simultaneous labels because of spectral overlap; and necessary perturbations of the experiment, such as fixing the cells, to generate the measurement. Here, we show that a computational machine-learning approach, which we call…

Hot Topics: Animal Model May Show How to Reduce Chemotherapy Pain

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Chemotherapy-induced pain is promoted by enhanced spinal adenosine kinase levels through astrocyte-dependent mechanisms Wahlman C, Doyle TM, Little JW, et al. Chemotherapy-induced pain is promoted by enhanced spinal adenosine kinase levels through astrocyte-dependent mechanisms. Pain. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001177 Development of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CINP) compromises the use of chemotherapy and greatly impacts thousands of lives. Unfortunately, there are no Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs to prevent or treat CINP. Neuropathological changes within CNS, including neuroinflammation and increased neuronal excitability, are driven by alterations in neuro-glia communication; but, the molecular signaling pathways remain largely unexplored. Adenosine is a potent neuroprotective purine nucleoside released to counteract the…

Hot Topics: Treating Depression May Counteract Cognitive Impairments

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Diagnostic Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment Sugarman MA, Alosco ML, Tripodis Y, Steinberg EG, Stern RA. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the diagnostic stability of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2018:1-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170527. Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate diagnosis between normal cognition (NC) and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous; many individuals subsequently revert to NC while others remain stable at MCI for several years. Identifying factors associated with this diagnostic instability could assist in defining clinical populations and determining cognitive prognoses. Objective: The current study examined whether neuropsychiatric…