PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research"

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics: Animal Model May Show How to Reduce Chemotherapy Pain

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Chemotherapy-induced pain is promoted by enhanced spinal adenosine kinase levels through astrocyte-dependent mechanisms Wahlman C, Doyle TM, Little JW, et al. Chemotherapy-induced pain is promoted by enhanced spinal adenosine kinase levels through astrocyte-dependent mechanisms. Pain. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001177 Development of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CINP) compromises the use of chemotherapy and greatly impacts thousands of lives. Unfortunately, there are no Food and Drug Administration–approved drugs to prevent or treat CINP. Neuropathological changes within CNS, including neuroinflammation and increased neuronal excitability, are driven by alterations in neuro-glia communication; but, the molecular signaling pathways remain largely unexplored. Adenosine is a potent neuroprotective purine nucleoside released to counteract the…

Hot Topics: Treating Depression May Counteract Cognitive Impairments

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Diagnostic Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment Sugarman MA, Alosco ML, Tripodis Y, Steinberg EG, Stern RA. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the diagnostic stability of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2018:1-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170527. Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate diagnosis between normal cognition (NC) and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous; many individuals subsequently revert to NC while others remain stable at MCI for several years. Identifying factors associated with this diagnostic instability could assist in defining clinical populations and determining cognitive prognoses. Objective: The current study examined whether neuropsychiatric…

Hot Topics: NIH Releases Big Data for Brain Development Research

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Pediatrics, Psychology and Psychiatry

NIH releases first dataset from unprecedented study of adolescent brain development National Institutes of Health. (2018, February 13). NIH releases first dataset from unprecedented study of adolescent brain development [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-releases-first-dataset-unprecedented-study-adolescent-brain-development. The National Institutes of Health Tuesday released to the scientific community an unparalleled dataset from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. To date, more than 7,500 youth and their families have been recruited for the study, well over half the participant goal.  Approximately 30 terabytes of data (about three times the size of the Library of Congress collection), obtained from the first 4,500 participants, will be…

Hot Topics: Ineffective Arthritis Drug Could Treat Opioid Addiction

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Substance Use Disorders

Slowly Signaling G Protein–Biased CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist LY2828360 Suppresses Neuropathic Pain with Sustained Efficacy and Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Dependence Lin X, Dhopeshwarkar AS, Huibregtse M, Mackie K, Hohmann AG. Slowly Signaling G Protein–Biased CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist LY2828360 Suppresses Neuropathic Pain with Sustained Efficacy and Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Dependence. Mol Pharmacol. 2018;93:49-62; doi: 10.1124/mol.117.109355. The CB2 cannabinoid agonist LY2828360 lacked both toxicity and efficacy in a clinical trial for osteoarthritis. Whether LY2828360 suppresses neuropathic pain has not been reported, and its signaling profile is unknown. In vitro, LY2828360 was a slowly acting but efficacious G protein–biased CB2 agonist, inhibiting cAMP…

Hot Topics: Existing Cupping Therapy Research Inconclusive on Benefits or Drawbacks

Jackie Werner Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Hot Topics in Research, Sports Medicine

Effects of Cupping Therapy in Amateur and Professional Athletes: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Bridgett R, Klose P, Duffield R, Mydock S, Lauche R. Effects of cupping therapy in amateur and professional athletes: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2017.0191. Objective: Despite the recent re-emergence of the process of cupping by athletes, supporting evidence for its efficacy and safety remains scarce. This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of clinical trials on cupping for athletes. Methods: SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, AMED, and CNKI databases were searched from their inception to December 10, 2016. Randomized…

Hot Topics: Key Molecule Found To Protect Brain From Depression

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders, Psychology and Psychiatry

Loss of eIF4E Phosphorylation Engenders Depression-like Behaviors via Selective mRNA Translation Amorim IS, Kedia S, Kouloulia S, et al. Loss of eIF4E phosphorylation engenders depression-like behaviors via selective mRNA translation. J Neurosci. 2018;38(8):2118-2133. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2673-17.2018. The MAPK/ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway is a cardinal regulator of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory in the hippocampus. One of major endpoints of this signaling cascade is the 5′ mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E (eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E), which is phosphorylated on Ser 209 by MNK (MAPK-interacting protein kinases) and controls mRNA translation. The precise role of phospho-eIF4E in the brain is yet to…

Hot Topics: Stress of Healthcare Staff Can Affect Service During Disasters

Jackie Werner Emergency Medicine, Hot Topics in Research

Staff Stress: The Sleeping Cell of Healthcare Failure Achour N, Munokaran S, Barker F, Soetanto R. Staff stress: The sleeping cell of healthcare failure. Procedia Engineering. 2018;212:459-466. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2018.01.059. Much research has been conducted to increase the resilience of healthcare service to major hazards; however, every time a major hazard takes place we discover that this critical service is yet to reach the anticipated resilient state. This paper reports an ongoing research work that looked at: the resilience of the structure of healthcare facilities, equipment stability, lifeline (utility) supplies, the interaction between hospitals and emergency agencies and the support the latter can…

Hot Topics: Virtual Reality Used to Study How Memories Are Formed

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

CA1 and CA3 differentially support spontaneous retrieval of episodic contexts within human hippocampal subfields Dimsdale-Zucker H, Ritchey M, Ekstrom AD, Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C. CA1 and CA3 differentially support spontaneous retrieval of episodic contexts within human hippocampal subfields. Nature Communications. 2018;9(1):294. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02752-1. The hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial and episodic memory. Mechanistic models predict that hippocampal subfields have computational specializations that differentially support memory. However, there is little empirical evidence suggesting differences between the subfields, particularly in humans. To clarify how hippocampal subfields support human spatial and episodic memory, we developed a virtual reality paradigm where participants passively…

Hot Topics: Interim Publications of Randomized Trials Can Be Misleading

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Research and Scholarly Communication, Research Commentary

Characteristics of Interim Publications of Randomized Clinical Trials and Comparison With Final Publications Woloshin S, Schwartz LM, Bagley PJ, Blunt HB, White B. Characteristics of interim publications of randomized clinical trials and comparison with final publications. JAMA. 2018;319(4). doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.20653. Publication of interim results of randomized trials can be consequential, potentially undermining trial integrity by unblinding or encouraging dropouts and crossovers, introducing uncertainty because results based on fewer outcomes are less precise, or overstating true treatment effects as demonstrated primarily in trials terminated early but also in ongoing trials. Nevertheless, because interim results are new and often promising, they may generate…

Hot Topics: Flu May Be Spread By Breathing

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community Yan J, Grantham M, Pantelic J, et al. Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2018. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1716561115 Little is known about the amount and infectiousness of influenza virus shed into exhaled breath. This contributes to uncertainty about the importance of airborne influenza transmission. We screened 355 symptomatic volunteers with acute respiratory illness and report 142 cases with confirmed influenza infection who provided 218 paired nasopharyngeal (NP) and 30-minute breath samples (coarse >5-µm and fine…