PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research"

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics: Wristband Devices Detect Dangerous Epileptic Seizures

Jackie Werner Central Nervous System Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors Onorati, F., Regalia, G., Caborni, C., Migliorini, M., Bender, D., et al. (2017), Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors. Epilepsia. doi:10.1111/epi.13899 Objective New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. Methods Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used…

Hot Topics: Shortened Tuberculosis Treatment As Effective as Current Recommended Treatment

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Short-course treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the STREAM trials. Moodley, R., Godec, T. R., & STREAM Trial Team. (2016). Short-course treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: The STREAM trials. European Respiratory Review : An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society, 25(139), 29-35. doi:10.1183/16000617.0080-2015 Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a threat to global TB control, as suboptimal and poorly tolerated treatment options have resulted in largely unfavourable outcomes for these patients. The last of six cohort studies conducted in Bangladesh which assessed a new shorter regimen using currently available TB drugs showed promising results and offered the possibility of a more acceptable and more effective…

Hot Topics: Daily Light Therapy May Provide Relief for Bipolar Depression

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders, Psychology and Psychiatry

Adjunctive Bright Light Therapy for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial Sit, D. K., McGowan, J., Wiltrout, C., Diler, R. S., Dills, J., et al. (2017). Adjunctive bright light therapy for bipolar depression: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16101200 Objective: Patients with bipolar disorder have recurrent major depression, residual mood symptoms, and limited treatment options. Building on promising pilot data, the authors conducted a 6-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of adjunctive bright light therapy at midday for bipolar depression. The aims were to determine remission rate, depression symptom level, and rate of…

Hot Topics: Ultrasound Therapy Reduces Parkinson’s Tremors

Jackie Werner Central Nervous System Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Safety and Efficacy of Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Patients With Medication-Refractory, Tremor-Dominant Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial Bond, A. E., Shah, B. B., Huss, D. S., et al. (2017). Safety and efficacy of focused ultrasound thalamotomy for patients with medication-refractory, tremor-dominant parkinson disease: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurology. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3098 Importance  Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of focused ultrasound (FUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor, but its effectiveness and safety for managing tremor-dominant Parkinson disease (TDPD) is unknown. Objective  To assess safety and efficacy at 12-month follow-up, accounting for placebo response, of unilateral FUS thalamotomy for patients with TDPD. Design, Setting, and Participants  Of…

Hot Topics: Atrial Fibrillation May Be Commonly Undiganosed

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Incidence of Previously Undiagnosed Atrial Fibrillation Using Insertable Cardiac Monitors in a High-Risk Population: The REVEAL AF Study Reiffel JA, Verma A, Kowey PR, al e. Incidence of previously undiagnosed atrial fibrillation using insertable cardiac monitors in a high-risk population: The reveal af study. JAMA Cardiology. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2017.3180. Importance  In approximately 20% of atrial fibrillation (AF)–related ischemic strokes, stroke is the first clinical manifestation of AF. Strategies are needed to identify and therapeutically address previously undetected AF. Objective  To quantify the incidence of AF in patients at high risk for but without previously known AF using an insertable cardiac monitor. Design, Setting, and Participants  This…

Hot Topics: Frequent Vaping Encourages Smokers to Quit Tobacco

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Substance Use Disorders

The Relationship of E-Cigarette Use to Cigarette Quit Attempts and Cessation: Insights From a Large, Nationally Representative U.S. Survey David T Levy, PhD, Zhe Yuan, MS, Yuying Luo, MS, David B Abrams, PhD; The Relationship of E-Cigarette Use to Cigarette Quit Attempts and Cessation: Insights From a Large, Nationally Representative U.S. Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx166 Objectives While cessation from cigarettes is a top priority for public health, controversy surrounds the role of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarettes. This study examines the role of e-cigarettes in quit attempts and 3-month cigarette abstinence using a large, recent nationally representative US sample. Methods Data…

Hot Topics: New Technique “Hotwires” Cells to Induce Endocytosis on Demand

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research

New tools for “hot-wiring” clathrin-mediated endocytosis with temporal and spatial precision Wood LA, Larocque G, Clarke NI, Sarkar S, Royle SJ. New tools for “hot-wiring” clathrin-mediated endocytosis with temporal and spatial precision. J Cell Biol. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201702188. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major route of receptor internalization at the plasma membrane. Analysis of constitutive CME is difficult because the initiation of endocytic events is unpredictable. When and where a clathrin-coated pit will form and what cargo it will contain are difficult to foresee. Here we describe a series of genetically encoded reporters that allow the initiation of CME on demand. A clathrin-binding…

Hot Topics: Mass Spectroscopy “Cancer Pen” Could Quickly Detect Tumors

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Uncategorized

Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system Zhang J, Rector J, Lin JQ, et al. Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system. Science Translational Medicine. 2017;9(406). http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aan3968 Conventional methods for histopathologic tissue diagnosis are labor- and time-intensive and can delay decision-making during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. We report the development of an automated and biocompatible handheld mass spectrometry device for rapid and nondestructive diagnosis of human cancer tissues. The device, named MasSpec Pen, enables controlled and automated delivery of a discrete…

Hot Topics: Mothers with Anti-Vaccine Friends and Family Delay Babies’ Shots

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics

Vaccine Education During Pregnancy and Timeliness of Infant Immunization Veerasingam P, Grant CC, Chelimo C, et al. Vaccine education during pregnancy and timeliness of infant immunization. Pediatrics. 2017. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3727 OBJECTIVES: Pregnant women routinely receive information in support of or opposing infant immunization. We aimed to describe immunization information sources of future mothers’ and determine if receiving immunization information is associated with infant immunization timeliness. METHODS: We analyzed data from a child cohort born 2009–2010 in New Zealand. Pregnant women (N = 6822) at a median gestation of 39 weeks described sources of information encouraging or discouraging infant immunization. Immunizations received by cohort infants…

Hot Topics: Cardiovascular Event Risk Lowered by Reducing Inflammation Alone

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease Ridker PM, Everett BM, Thuren T, et al. Antiinflammatory therapy with canakinumab for atherosclerotic disease. N Engl J Med. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1707914. BACKGROUND Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of canakinumab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1β, involving 10,061 patients with previous myocardial infarction and a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level of 2 mg or more per liter. The trial compared three doses of canakinumab (50 mg, 150…