PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research"

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics: Flu May Be Spread By Breathing

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community Yan J, Grantham M, Pantelic J, et al. Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2018. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1716561115 Little is known about the amount and infectiousness of influenza virus shed into exhaled breath. This contributes to uncertainty about the importance of airborne influenza transmission. We screened 355 symptomatic volunteers with acute respiratory illness and report 142 cases with confirmed influenza infection who provided 218 paired nasopharyngeal (NP) and 30-minute breath samples (coarse >5-µm and fine…

Hot Topics: CTE Caused by Head Impact, Not Concussions

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Sports Medicine

Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model Tagge C,A., Fisher A,M., Minaeva O,V., et al. Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model. Brain. 2018. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx350. The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To…

Hot Topics: Resistance to HIV Drugs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Rising

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

HIV-1 drug resistance before initiation or re-initiation of first-line antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis Gupta RK, Gregson J, Parkin N, et al. HIV-1 drug resistance before initiation or re-initiation of first-line antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30702-8. Background Pretreatment drug resistance in people initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) might compromise HIV control in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the scale of this problem and whether it is associated with the intiation…

Hot Topics: Ingestible Sensors Can Tell If Patients Are Taking Pills

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns in Acute Fracture Pain With Digital Pills Chai PR, Carreiro S, Innes BJ, et al. Oxycodone ingestion patterns in acute fracture pain with digital pills. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2017;125(6). doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002574 BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed on an as-needed (PRN) basis for acute painful conditions. Uncertainty of how patients actually take PRN opioids, coupled with a desire to completely cover pain, leads to variable and overly generous opioid prescribing practices, resulting in a surplus of opioids. This opioid surplus becomes a source for diversion and nonmedical opioid use. Understanding patterns of actual opioid ingestion after acute painful conditions can…

Hot Topics: Antacids Taken During Pregnancy Linked to Asthma in Children

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Pulmonary

Acid-Suppressive Drug Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Childhood Asthma: A Meta-analysis Lai T, Wu M, Liu J, et al. Acid-suppressive drug use during pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2018. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0889. CONTEXT: The association between acid-suppressive drug exposure during pregnancy and childhood asthma has not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on this association to provide further justification for the current studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBSCO Information Services, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from inception until June 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Observational studies in…

Hot Topics: Virtual Reality Games Can Help Stroke Recovery

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Physical Therapy

Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES): A multicenter RCT Brunner, I., Skouen, J. S., Hofstad, H., Aßmus, J., Becker, F., Sanders, A., . . . Verheyden, G. (2017). Virtual reality training for upper extremity in subacute stroke (VIRTUES). Neurology, doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004744 Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper extremity motor impairment within 12 weeks after stroke were consecutively included at 5 rehabilitation institutions. Participants were randomized to either…

Hot Topics: Adolescent Athletes with Limited Hip Range of Motion at Risk for Osteoarthritis

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Rheumatology

Cam Deformities and Limited Hip Range of Motion Are Associated With Early Osteoarthritic Changes in Adolescent Athletes: A Prospective Matched Cohort Study Wyles, C. C., Norambuena, G. A., Howe, B. M., Larson, D. R., Levy, B. A., Yuan, B. J., . . . Sierra, R. J. (2017). Cam deformities and limited hip range of motion are associated with early osteoarthritic changes in adolescent athletes: A prospective matched cohort study. Am J Sports Med, 45(13), 3036-3043. doi:10.1177/0363546517719460 Background: The natural history of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains incompletely understood. In particular, there is limited documentation of joint damage in adolescent patients with limited range…

Hot Topics: Shaming Overweight Children is Harmful

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Psychology and Psychiatry

Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity Pont, S. J., Puhl, R., Cook, S. R., Slusser, W., Section on Obesity , & The Obesity Society. (2017). Stigma experienced by children and adolescents with obesity. Pediatrics, doi:10.1542/peds.2017-3034 The stigmatization of people with obesity is widespread and causes harm. Weight stigma is often propagated and tolerated in society because of beliefs that stigma and shame will motivate people to lose weight. However, rather than motivating positive change, this stigma contributes to behaviors such as binge eating, social isolation, avoidance of health care services, decreased physical activity, and increased weight gain, which worsen obesity…

Hot Topics: New Guidelines Lower Threshold for High Blood Pressure

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Potential U.S. Population Impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Guideline Muntner, P., Carey, R. M., Gidding, S., Jones, D. W., Taler, S. J., Wright, J. T., & Whelton, P. K. (2017). Potential U.S. population impact of the 2017 American Ccollege of Cardiology/American Heart Association high blood pressure guideline. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.073 Background The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for…

Hot Topics: Medical Journal Editor Conflicts of Interest Common and Underreported

Jackie Werner Ethics, Hot Topics in Research, Research and Scholarly Communication

Payments by US pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers to US medical journal editors: retrospective observational study Liu, J. J., Bell, C. M., Matelski, J. J., Detsky, A. S., & Cram, P. (2017). Payments by US pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers to US medical journal editors: Retrospective observational study. BMJ, 359 doi:10.1136/bmj.j4619 Objective To estimate financial payments from industry to US journal editors. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting 52 influential (high impact factor for their specialty) US medical journals from 26 specialties and US Open Payments database, 2014. Participants 713 editors at the associate level and above identified from each journal’s online masthead. Main outcome measures All general payments…