PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research"

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics in Research: An interview project with native American people: a community-based study to identify actionable steps to reduce health disparities

David Teter Hot Topics in Research

An interview project with native American people: a community-based study to identify actionable steps to reduce health disparities.
Leston J, Crisp C, Lee C, Rink E.
Public Health. 2019 Nov;176:82-91. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.12.002. Epub 2019 Feb 12.
PMID: 30765139 Free article.

Click the following link to access the full article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30765139/

Hot Topics in Research: Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Outcomes Among American Indians in Oklahoma: the THRIVE Study

David Teter Hot Topics in Research

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Outcomes Among American Indians in Oklahoma: the THRIVE Study.
Jernigan VBB, Wetherill M, Hearod J, Jacob T, Salvatore AL, Cannady T, Grammar M, Standridge J, Fox J, Spiegel J, Wiley A, Noonan C, Buchwald D.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2017 Dec;4(6):1061-1068. doi: 10.1007/s40615-016-0310-4. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
PMID: 27924618 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.

Click the following link to access the full article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27924618/

Hot Topics in Research: Vaccine Misinformation in the Elderly

David Teter Hot Topics in Research

A media intervention applying debunking versus non-debunking content to combat vaccine misinformation in elderly in the Netherlands: A digital randomised trial.
Yousuf H, van der Linden S, Bredius L, Ted van Essen GA, Sweep G, Preminger Z, van Gorp E, Scherder E, Narula J, Hofstra L.
EClinicalMedicine. 2021 May 15
Click the following link to read the full article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34124631/

Hot Topics in Research: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Major Depressive Disorder

David Teter Hot Topics in Research

Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Major Depressive Disorder.
Shao Z, Richie WD, Bailey RK.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016 Dec;3(4):692-705. doi: 10.1007/s40615-015-0188-6. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
PMID: 27294764

Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and disabling psychiatric disorders in the USA. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are extremely important to prevent disability and improve quality of life. Recent studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of MDD. African Americans (AA), Hispanics, and Asian Americans were significantly less likely to receive a depression diagnosis from a health-care provider than were non-Hispanic whites. The underdiagnosis of MDD in minority groups may be due to differences in socioeconomic status (SES), care affordability, cultural beliefs about depression, help-seeking patterns, access to culturally and linguistically appropriate care, patient-physician relationship, clinical presentation of depression, etc. Meanwhile, the likelihood of both having access to and receiving adequate care for depression was significantly low for AA, Hispanics, and Asian Americans, in contrast to whites. Similar disparities also exist in treatment outcomes. Besides the reasons for MDD underdiagnosis, additional contributing factors include access barriers to preferred mode of treatment, cultural concerns about antidepressants and different metabolism of antidepressants, etc. There are many ways to address these disparities and improve MDD care in minority populations, including universal depression screening, public financial incentives to ensure access to care in low-income and minority neighborhoods, quality improvement programs, cultural competency of mental health professionals, collaborative care management, community engagement and planning, and enhanced participation of minorities in clinical research.

Hot Topics in Research: Cancer Statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2018

David Teter Hot Topics in Research

Cancer Statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2018.
Miller KD, Goding Sauer A, Ortiz AP, Fedewa SA, Pinheiro PS, Tortolero-Luna G, Martinez-Tyson D, Jemal A, Siegel RL.
CA Cancer J Clin. 2018 Nov;68(6):425-445. doi: 10.3322/caac.21494. Epub 2018 Oct 4.
PMID: 30285281

Abstract

Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics/Latinos, who represent the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, accounting for 17.8% (57.5 million) of the total population in the continental United States and Hawaii in 2016. In addition, more than 3 million Hispanic Americans live in the US territory of Puerto Rico. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society reports on cancer occurrence, risk factors, and screening for Hispanics in the United States based on data from the National Cancer Institute, the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For the first time, contemporary incidence and mortality rates for Puerto Rico, which has a 99% Hispanic population, are also presented. An estimated 149,100 new cancer cases and 42,700 cancer deaths will occur among Hispanics in the continental United States and Hawaii in 2018. For all cancers combined, Hispanics have 25% lower incidence and 30% lower mortality compared with non-Hispanic whites, although rates of infection-related cancers, such as liver, are up to twice as high in Hispanics. However, these aggregated data mask substantial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population because of variable cancer risk, as exemplified by the substantial differences in the cancer burden between island Puerto Ricans and other US Hispanics. For example, during 2011 to 2015, prostate cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico (146.6 per 100,000) were 60% higher than those in other US Hispanics combined (91.6 per 100,000) and 44% higher than those in non-Hispanic whites (101.7 per 100,000). Prostate cancer is also the leading cause of cancer death among men in Puerto Rico, accounting for nearly 1 in 6 cancer deaths during 2011-2015, whereas lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among other US Hispanic men combined. Variations in cancer risk are driven by differences in exposure to cancer-causing infectious agents and behavioral risk factors as well as the prevalence of screening. Strategies for reducing cancer risk in Hispanic populations include targeted, culturally appropriate interventions for increasing the uptake of preventive services and reducing cancer risk factor prevalence, as well as additional funding for Puerto Rico-specific and subgroup-specific cancer research and surveillance.

Hot Topics in Research: Hypertension and race/ethnicity

David Teter Hot Topics in Research

Hypertension and race/ethnicity.

Deere BP, Ferdinand KC.Curr Opin Cardiol. 2020 Jul;35(4):342-350. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000742.PMID: 32398604 Review.

Abstract

Purpose of review: United States racial/ethnic minorities may experience disproportionate hypertension (HTN) morbidity and mortality. This review discusses recent literature regarding the differential impact of HTN, especially among African Americans and Hispanics.

Recent findings: Although disparities in HTN prevalence, control, and outcomes persist in racial/ethnic minorities relative to non-Hispanic Whites, racial/ethnic minorities are frequently underrepresented in genetic and clinical studies. Genomics have improved our understanding of HTN, but with no clinically useful application, the role of social determinants of health in HTN disparities is increasingly recognized. Team-based approaches with targeted, multilevel interventions may overcome barriers that uniquely impact racial/ethnic minorities.

Summary: Despite extensive epidemiological research, racial/ethnic minorities remain at higher risk HTN-related morbidity and mortality. Translational efforts may address the differential impact of HTN in racial/ethnic minorities. This review highlights recent research and concepts related to HTN and race/ethnicity.

Hot Topics in Research: Evidence-Based Strategies for Clinical Organizations to Address COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy.

David Teter Covid-19, Hot Topics in Research

Evidence-Based Strategies for Clinical Organizations to Address COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy. (requires PCOM login)
Finney Rutten LJ, Zhu X, Leppin AL, Ridgeway JL, Swift MD, Griffin JM, St Sauver JL, Virk A, Jacobson RM.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2021 Mar;96(3):699-707. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.12.024. Epub 2020 Dec 30.
Building upon efforts at the policy and community level to ensure population access to COVID-19 vaccination, a strong health care system response is critical to address vaccine hesitancy.
PMID: 33673921 Free PMC article. Review.

Abstract:

The success of vaccination programs is contingent upon irrefutable scientific safety data combined with high rates of public acceptance and population coverage. Vaccine hesitancy, characterized by lack of confidence in vaccination and/or complacency about vaccination that may lead to delay or refusal of vaccination despite the availability of services, threatens to undermine the success of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs. The rapid pace of vaccine development, misinformation in popular and social media, the polarized sociopolitical environment, and the inherent complexities of large-scale vaccination efforts may undermine vaccination confidence and increase complacency about COVID-19 vaccination. Although the experience of recent lethal surges of COVID-19 infections has underscored the value of COVID-19 vaccines, ensuring population uptake of COVID-19 vaccination will require application of multilevel, evidence-based strategies to influence behavior change and address vaccine hesitancy. Recent survey research evaluating public attitudes in the United States toward the COVID-19 vaccine reveals substantial vaccine hesitancy. Building upon efforts at the policy and community level to ensure population access to COVID-19 vaccination, a strong health care system response is critical to address vaccine hesitancy. Drawing on the evidence base in social, behavioral, communication, and implementation science, we review, summarize, and encourage use of interpersonal, individual-level, and organizational interventions within clinical organizations to address this critical gap and improve population adoption of COVID-19 vaccination.