Category: Neurology

Hot Topics: New Drug Improves Bladder Function After Spinal Cord Injury

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Role of proNGF/p75 signaling in bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury Ryu JC, Tooke K, Malley SE, et al. Role of proNGF/p75 signaling in bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury. J Clin Invest. 2018;128(5):1772-1786. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI97837 Loss of bladder control is a challenging outcome facing patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We report that systemic blocking of pro–nerve growth factor (proNGF) signaling through p75 with a CNS-penetrating small-molecule p75 inhibitor resulted in significant improvement in bladder function after SCI in rodents. The usual hyperreflexia was attenuated with normal bladder pressure, and automatic micturition was acquired weeks earlier than in the controls. The improvement…

Hot Topics: Treating Depression May Counteract Cognitive Impairments

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Diagnostic Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment Sugarman MA, Alosco ML, Tripodis Y, Steinberg EG, Stern RA. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the diagnostic stability of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2018:1-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170527. Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate diagnosis between normal cognition (NC) and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous; many individuals subsequently revert to NC while others remain stable at MCI for several years. Identifying factors associated with this diagnostic instability could assist in defining clinical populations and determining cognitive prognoses. Objective: The current study examined whether neuropsychiatric…

Hot Topics: NIH Releases Big Data for Brain Development Research

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Pediatrics, Psychology and Psychiatry

NIH releases first dataset from unprecedented study of adolescent brain development National Institutes of Health. (2018, February 13). NIH releases first dataset from unprecedented study of adolescent brain development [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-releases-first-dataset-unprecedented-study-adolescent-brain-development. The National Institutes of Health Tuesday released to the scientific community an unparalleled dataset from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. To date, more than 7,500 youth and their families have been recruited for the study, well over half the participant goal.  Approximately 30 terabytes of data (about three times the size of the Library of Congress collection), obtained from the first 4,500 participants, will be…

Hot Topics: Virtual Reality Used to Study How Memories Are Formed

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

CA1 and CA3 differentially support spontaneous retrieval of episodic contexts within human hippocampal subfields Dimsdale-Zucker H, Ritchey M, Ekstrom AD, Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C. CA1 and CA3 differentially support spontaneous retrieval of episodic contexts within human hippocampal subfields. Nature Communications. 2018;9(1):294. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02752-1. The hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial and episodic memory. Mechanistic models predict that hippocampal subfields have computational specializations that differentially support memory. However, there is little empirical evidence suggesting differences between the subfields, particularly in humans. To clarify how hippocampal subfields support human spatial and episodic memory, we developed a virtual reality paradigm where participants passively…

Hot Topics: CTE Caused by Head Impact, Not Concussions

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Sports Medicine

Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model Tagge C,A., Fisher A,M., Minaeva O,V., et al. Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model. Brain. 2018. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx350. The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To…

Hot Topics: Virtual Reality Games Can Help Stroke Recovery

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Physical Therapy

Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES): A multicenter RCT Brunner, I., Skouen, J. S., Hofstad, H., Aßmus, J., Becker, F., Sanders, A., . . . Verheyden, G. (2017). Virtual reality training for upper extremity in subacute stroke (VIRTUES). Neurology, doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004744 Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper extremity motor impairment within 12 weeks after stroke were consecutively included at 5 rehabilitation institutions. Participants were randomized to either…

Hot Topics: Wristband Devices Detect Dangerous Epileptic Seizures

Jackie Werner Central Nervous System Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors Onorati, F., Regalia, G., Caborni, C., Migliorini, M., Bender, D., et al. (2017), Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors. Epilepsia. doi:10.1111/epi.13899 Objective New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. Methods Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used…

Hot Topics: Ultrasound Therapy Reduces Parkinson’s Tremors

Jackie Werner Central Nervous System Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Safety and Efficacy of Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Patients With Medication-Refractory, Tremor-Dominant Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial Bond, A. E., Shah, B. B., Huss, D. S., et al. (2017). Safety and efficacy of focused ultrasound thalamotomy for patients with medication-refractory, tremor-dominant parkinson disease: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurology. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3098 Importance  Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of focused ultrasound (FUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor, but its effectiveness and safety for managing tremor-dominant Parkinson disease (TDPD) is unknown. Objective  To assess safety and efficacy at 12-month follow-up, accounting for placebo response, of unilateral FUS thalamotomy for patients with TDPD. Design, Setting, and Participants  Of…

Hot Topic: Cannabis May Ease Neuropathic Pain

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review Nugent SM, Morasco BJ, O’Neil ME, al e. The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. doi: 10.7326/M17-0155 Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain. Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and several…

Hot Topic: Mind-Body Therapies Dramatically Reduce Pain in Hospital Patients

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry

Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Training and Hypnotic Suggestion for Acute Pain Relief in the Hospital Setting Garland EL, Baker AK, Larsen P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of brief mindfulness training and hypnotic suggestion for acute pain relief in the hospital setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4116-9. Background Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions. Objective We hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to…