Category: Neurology

Hot Topic: Cannabis May Ease Neuropathic Pain

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review Nugent SM, Morasco BJ, O’Neil ME, al e. The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. doi: 10.7326/M17-0155 Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain. Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and several…

Hot Topic: Mind-Body Therapies Dramatically Reduce Pain in Hospital Patients

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry

Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Training and Hypnotic Suggestion for Acute Pain Relief in the Hospital Setting Garland EL, Baker AK, Larsen P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of brief mindfulness training and hypnotic suggestion for acute pain relief in the hospital setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4116-9. Background Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions. Objective We hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to…

Hot Topics: Alzheimer’s Further Linked to Brain Plaques

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Hot Topics in Research, Senile Plaques

Association Between Elevated Brain Amyloid and Subsequent Cognitive Decline Among Cognitively Normal Persons Donohue MC, Sperling RA, Petersen R, al e. Association between elevated brain amyloid and subsequent cognitive decline among cognitively normal persons. JAMA. 2017. 317(22):2305-2316. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6669. Importance  Among cognitively normal individuals, elevated brain amyloid (defined by cerebrospinal fluid assays or positron emission tomography regional summaries) can be related to risk for later Alzheimer-related cognitive decline. Objective  To characterize and quantify the risk for Alzheimer-related cognitive decline among cognitively normal individuals with elevated brain amyloid. Design, Setting, and Participants  Exploratory analyses were conducted with longitudinal cognitive and biomarker data from 445…

Hot Topics: Severe Epilepsy Eased by Compound in Cannabis

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, et al. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the dravet syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21):2011-2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1611618. BACKGROUND The Dravet syndrome is a complex childhood epilepsy disorder that is associated with drug-resistant seizures and a high mortality rate. We studied cannabidiol for the treatment of drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 120 children and young adults with the Dravet syndrome and drug-resistant seizures to receive either cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of 20…

Hot Topics: First Tardive Dyskinesia Drug Approved by FDA

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry

FDA approves first drug to treat tardive dyskinesia Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). FDA approves first drug to treat tardive dyskinesia. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm552418.htm. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today [April 11, 2017] approved Ingrezza (valbenazine) capsules to treat adults with tardive dyskinesia. This is the first drug approved by the FDA for this condition. Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive involuntary movements, usually of the jaw, lips and tongue, such as grimacing, sticking out the tongue and smacking the lips. Some affected people also experience involuntary movement of the…

Hot Topics: FDA Approves First Drug For Severe Multiple Sclerosis

Jackie Werner Central Nervous System Disorders, Hot Topics in Research

FDA approves new drug to treat multiple sclerosis Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). FDA approves new drug to treat multiple sclerosis. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm549325.htm. On March 28, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Ocrevus (ocrelizumab) to treat adult patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). This is the first drug approved by the FDA for PPMS. Ocrevus is an intravenous infusion given by a health care professional. “Multiple sclerosis can have a profound impact on a person’s life,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of…

Hot Topics: Stem Cell Transplants May Slow Progression of Multiple Sclerosis

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Long-term Outcomes After Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Sclerosis Muraro PA, Pasquini M, Atkins HL,et al. Long-term outcomes after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis. JAMA Neurology. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.5867. Importance  Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) may be effective in aggressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) that fail to respond to standard therapies. Objective  To evaluate the long-term outcomes in patients who underwent AHSCT for the treatment of MS in a large multicenter cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants  Data were obtained in a multicenter, observational, retrospective cohort study. Eligibility criteria were receipt of AHSCT for the…

A Comparison of the Prevalence of Dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012

PJ Grier Alzheimer Disease, December, Dementia, Hot Topics in Research

A Comparison of the Prevalence of Dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012 Importance  The aging of the US population is expected to lead to a large increase in the number of adults with dementia, but some recent studies in the United States and other high-income countries suggest that the age-specific risk of dementia may have declined over the past 25 years. Clarifying current and future population trends in dementia prevalence and risk has important implications for patients, families, and government programs. Objective  To compare the prevalence of dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012. Design,…

Visualization of regional tau deposits using 3H-THK5117 in Alzheimer brain tissue

PJ Grier Alzheimer Disease, April, Hot Topics in Research

Visualization of regional tau deposits using 3H-THK5117 in Alzheimer brain tissue Abstract  The accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein, starts spreading early in specific regions in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), correlating with the progression of memory dysfunction. The non-invasive imaging of tau could therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of AD, differentiate it from other dementing disorders and allow evaluation of tau immunization therapy outcomes. In this study we characterized the in vitro binding properties of THK5117, a tentative radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tau brain deposits. Results Saturation and competition binding…

Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4

PJ Grier Dementia, February, Hot Topics in Research, Memory Impairment

Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4 Abstract Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia’s strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to…