PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Internal Medicine / Archive for "Rheumatology"

Category: Rheumatology

Hot Topics: Metabolite Constellation Predicts Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Rheumatology

Insights into myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome phenotypes through comprehensive metabolomics

Nagy-Szakal D, Barupal DK, Lee B, et al. Insights into myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome phenotypes through comprehensive metabolomics. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1):10056. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28477-9.

The pathogenesis of ME/CFS, a disease characterized by fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and lymphadenopathy, is poorly understood. We report biomarker discovery and topological analysis of plasma metabolomic, fecal bacterial metagenomic, and clinical data from 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls. We confirm reports of altered plasma levels of choline, carnitine and complex lipid metabolites and demonstrate that patients with ME/CFS and IBS have increased plasma levels of ceramide. Integration of fecal metagenomic and plasma metabolomic data resulted in a stronger predictive model of ME/CFS (cross-validated AUC = 0.836) than either metagenomic (cross-validated AUC = 0.745) or metabolomic (cross-validated AUC = 0.820) analysis alone. Our findings may provide insights into the pathogenesis of ME/CFS and its subtypes and suggest pathways for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Hot Topics: Opioids Overprescribed After Joint and Spine Surgery

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rheumatology, Surgery

Opioid Oversupply After Joint and Spine Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

Bicket MC, White E, Pronovost PJ, Wu CL, Yaster M, Alexander GC. Opioid oversupply after joint and spine surgery: A prospective cohort study. Anesth Analg. 2018. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003364.

BACKGROUND: Many patients receive prescription opioids at hospital discharge after surgery, yet little is known regarding how often these opioids go unused. We estimated the prevalence of unused opioids, use of nonopioid analgesics, and storage and disposal practices after same-day and inpatient surgery.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study at a large, inner-city tertiary care hospital, we recruited individuals ≥18 years of age undergoing elective same-day or inpatient joint and spine surgery from August to November 2016. Using patient surveys via telephone calls, we assessed patient-reported outcomes at 2-day, 2-week, 1-month, and 6-month intervals, including: (1) stopping opioid treatment and in possession of unused opioid pills (primary outcome), (2) number of unused opioid tablets reported after stopping opioids, (3) use of nonopioid pain treatments, and (4) knowledge and practice regarding safe opioid storage and disposal.

RESULTS: Of 141 eligible patients, 140 (99%) consented (35% taking preoperative opioids; mean age 56 years [standard deviation 16 years]; 47% women). One- and 6-month follow-up was achieved for 115 (82%) and 110 patients (80%), respectively. Among patients who stopped opioid therapy, possession of unused opioids was reported by 73% (95% confidence intervals, 62%-82%) at 1-month follow-up and 34% (confidence interval, 24%-45%) at 6-month follow-up. At 1 month, 46% had ≥20 unused pills, 37% had ≥200 morphine milligram equivalents, and only 6% reported using multiple nonopioid adjuncts. Many patients reported unsafe storage and failure to dispose of opioids at both 1-month (91% and 96%, respectively) and 6-month (92% and 47%, respectively) follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: After joint and spine surgery, many patients reported unused opioids, infrequent use of analgesic alternatives, and lack of knowledge regarding safe opioid storage and disposal. Interventions are needed to better tailor postoperative analgesia and improve the safe storage and disposal of prescription opioids.

Hot Topics: Adolescent Athletes with Limited Hip Range of Motion at Risk for Osteoarthritis

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Rheumatology

Cam Deformities and Limited Hip Range of Motion Are Associated With Early Osteoarthritic Changes in Adolescent Athletes: A Prospective Matched Cohort Study

Wyles, C. C., Norambuena, G. A., Howe, B. M., Larson, D. R., Levy, B. A., Yuan, B. J., . . . Sierra, R. J. (2017). Cam deformities and limited hip range of motion are associated with early osteoarthritic changes in adolescent athletes: A prospective matched cohort study. Am J Sports Med, 45(13), 3036-3043. doi:10.1177/0363546517719460

Background:
The natural history of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains incompletely understood. In particular, there is limited documentation of joint damage in adolescent patients with limited range of motion (LROM) of the hip, which is commonly associated with FAI.

Purpose:
To evaluate changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and clinical examinations over 5 years in a group of athletes from a wide variety of sports with asymptomatic LROM of the hip compared with matched controls.

Study Design:
Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.

Methods:
The authors screened 226 male and female athletes aged 12 to 18 years presenting for preparticipation sports physical examinations. Using a goniometer, we identified 13 participants with at least one hip having internal rotation <10° with the hip flexed to 90°. Overall, 21 of 26 hips (81%) had internal rotation <10°. These participants were age- and sex-matched to 13 controls with internal rotation >10°. At the time of enrollment, all participants were asymptomatic and underwent a complete hip examination and radiographic imaging with radiographs (anteroposterior [AP] and von Rosen views) and non-arthrogram MRI. Participants returned at 5-year follow-up and underwent repeat hip examinations, imaging (AP and lateral radiographs and non-arthrogram MRI), and hip function questionnaires. MRI scans were classified as “normal” versus “abnormal” based on the presence of any of 13 scored chondral, labral, or osseous abnormalities. Comparisons between the LROM group and control group were performed using generalized linear models (either linear, logistic, or log-binomial regression as appropriate for the outcome) with generalized estimating equations to account for the within-participant correlation due to patients having both hips included. Relative risk (RR) estimates are reported with 95% CIs.

Results:
At the time of study enrollment, 16 of 26 hips (62%) in the LROM group had abnormal MRI findings within the acetabular labrum or cartilage compared with 8 of 26 hips (31%) in the control group (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.95-4.2; P = .067). The mean alpha angle measured from radial MRI sequences was 58° in the LROM group versus 44° in the control group (P < .0001). In the LROM group, 13 of 26 hips (50%) had a positive anterior impingement sign, whereas 0 of 26 hips (0%) had a positive anterior impingement sign in the control group. At 5-year follow-up, 18 of 19 hips (95%) in the LROM group had abnormal MRI findings compared with 14 of 26 hips (54%) in the control group (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7; P = .014). New or progressive findings were documented on MRI in 15 of 20 hips in the LROM group compared with 8 of 26 hips in the control group (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.8; P = .011). Six of 22 hips (27%) in the LROM group progressed from Tönnis grade 0 to Tönnis grade 1 in degenerative changes, whereas all 26 hips in the control group remained at Tönnis grade 0 on hip radiographs. In the LROM group, 11 of 22 hips (50%) had a positive anterior impingement sign, whereas 1 of 26 hips (4%) had a positive anterior impingement sign in the control group. A cam deformity (alpha angle >55° on lateral radiographs) was present in 20 of 22 hips (91%) in the LROM group and 12 of 26 hips (46%) in the control group (P = .0165). The following variables at baseline were associated with an increased risk of degenerative changes at 5-year follow-up for the entire cohort: decreased hip internal rotation, positive anterior impingement sign, decreased hip flexion, increased alpha angle, and presence of a cam lesion.

Conclusion:
At 5 years, young athletes with LROM of the hip showed increased progressive degenerative changes on MRI and radiographs compared with matched controls. Although the majority of these participants remained asymptomatic, those with features of FAI had radiographic findings consistent with early osteoarthritis. These outcomes suggest that more aggressive screening and counseling of young active patients may be helpful to prevent hip osteoarthritis in those with FAI.

Hot Topics: Steroid Shots Ineffective For Arthritic Knee Pain

Jackie Werner Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Rheumatology

Effect of Intra-articular Triamcinolone vs Saline on Knee Cartilage Volume and Pain in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Harvey WF, et al. Effect of intra-articular triamcinolone vs saline on knee cartilage volume and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;317(19):1967-1975.

Importance  Synovitis is common and is associated with progression of structural characteristics of knee osteoarthritis. Intra-articular corticosteroids could reduce cartilage damage associated with synovitis but might have adverse effects on cartilage and periarticular bone.

Objective  To determine the effects of intra-articular injection of 40 mg of triamcinolone acetonide every 3 months on progression of cartilage loss and knee pain.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of intra-articular triamcinolone vs saline for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis with ultrasonic features of synovitis in 140 patients. Mixed-effects regression models with a random intercept were used to analyze the longitudinal repeated outcome measures. Patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, Kellgren-Lawrence grades 2 or 3, were enrolled at Tufts Medical Center beginning February 11, 2013; all patients completed the study by January 1, 2015.

Interventions  Intra-articular triamcinolone (n = 70) or saline (n = 70) every 12 weeks for 2 years.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Annual knee magnetic resonance imaging for quantitative evaluation of cartilage volume (minimal clinically important difference not yet defined), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index collected every 3 months (Likert pain subscale range, 0 [no pain] to 20 [extreme pain]; minimal clinically important improvement, 3.94).

Results  Among 140 randomized patients (mean age, 58 [SD, 8] years, 75 women [54%]), 119 (85%) completed the study. Intra-articular triamcinolone resulted in significantly greater cartilage volume loss than did saline for a mean change in index compartment cartilage thickness of −0.21 mm vs −0.10 mm (between-group difference, −0.11 mm; 95% CI, −0.20 to −0.03 mm); and no significant difference in pain (−1.2 vs −1.9; between-group difference, −0.6; 95% CI, −1.6 to 0.3). The saline group had 3 treatment-related adverse events compared with 5 in the triamcinolone group and had a small increase in hemoglobin A1c levels (between-group difference, −0.2%; 95% CI, −0.5% to −0.007%).

Conclusions and Relevance  Among patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, 2 years of intra-articular triamcinolone, compared with intra-articular saline, resulted in significantly greater cartilage volume loss and no significant difference in knee pain. These findings do not support this treatment for patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.