PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Archive for "Internal Medicine"

Category: Internal Medicine

Mass Spectroscopy “Cancer Pen” Could Quickly Detect Tumors

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Uncategorized

Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system Zhang J, Rector J, Lin JQ, et al. Nondestructive tissue analysis for ex vivo and in vivo cancer diagnosis using a handheld mass spectrometry system. Science Translational Medicine. 2017;9(406). http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aan3968 Conventional methods for histopathologic tissue diagnosis are labor- and time-intensive and can delay decision-making during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. We report the development of an automated and biocompatible handheld mass spectrometry device for rapid and nondestructive diagnosis of human cancer tissues. The device, named MasSpec Pen, enables controlled and automated delivery of a discrete…

Hot Topics: Cardiovascular Event Risk Lowered by Reducing Inflammation Alone

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease Ridker PM, Everett BM, Thuren T, et al. Antiinflammatory therapy with canakinumab for atherosclerotic disease. N Engl J Med. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1707914. BACKGROUND Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of canakinumab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1β, involving 10,061 patients with previous myocardial infarction and a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level of 2 mg or more per liter. The trial compared three doses of canakinumab (50 mg, 150…

Hot Topics: Combination of Traditional and New Drugs Effective for Esophageal Cancer

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Inhibition of pRB pathway differentially modulates apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells Soletti RC, Biasoli D, Rodrigues NALV, et al. Inhibition of pRB pathway differentially modulates apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Translational Oncology. 2017;10(5):726-733. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2017.06.008. Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current chemotherapy regimens include a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin, but more efficient therapy strategies are needed to increase 5-year survival. Alterations in the signaling pathway of the tumor suppressor gene Rb-1, which encodes a phosphoprotein (pRB) that negatively regulates the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, are present in 70% of all tumors, but…

Hot Topic: Cannabis May Ease Neuropathic Pain

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review Nugent SM, Morasco BJ, O’Neil ME, al e. The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. doi: 10.7326/M17-0155 Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain. Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and several…

Hot Topic: Mind-Body Therapies Dramatically Reduce Pain in Hospital Patients

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry

Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Training and Hypnotic Suggestion for Acute Pain Relief in the Hospital Setting Garland EL, Baker AK, Larsen P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of brief mindfulness training and hypnotic suggestion for acute pain relief in the hospital setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4116-9. Background Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions. Objective We hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to…

Hot Topics: Anti-Statin Internet Trend Could Threaten Lives

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Statin Denial: An Internet-Driven Cult With Deadly Consequences Nissen SE. Statin Denial: An Internet-Driven Cult With Deadly Consequences. Ann Intern Med. doi: 10.7326/M17-1566 The reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during the past 3 decades represents one of the great triumphs of contemporary medicine. In 1987, the age-adjusted mortality rate in the U.S. population for cardiovascular disease was 357 in 100 000, decreasing to 167 in 100 000 by 2014 (1). Although precisely gauging the relative contributions of various public health measures to the decline in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is impossible, most critical observers consider the introduction of statins in 1987…

Hot Topics: Monthly Injections Could Replace Pills for HIV Treatment

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial Margolis DA, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Stellbrink H, et al. Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31917-7. Summary Background Cabotegravir and rilpivirine are antiretroviral drugs in development as long-acting injectable formulations. The LATTE-2 study evaluated long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine for maintenance of HIV-1 viral suppression through 96 weeks. Methods In this randomised, phase 2b, open-label study, treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1 initially received oral cabotegravir 30…

Hot Topics: Unnecessary Antibiotics in Hospitals Can Cause Adverse Events

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Internal Medicine, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients Tamma PD, Avdic E, Li DX, Dzintars K, Cosgrove SE. Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA Intern Med. Published online June 12, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.1938 Importance  Estimates of the incidence of overall antibiotic-associated adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients are generally unavailable. Objective  To describe the incidence of antibiotic-associated ADEs for adult inpatients receiving systemic antibiotic therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort of adult inpatients admitted to general medicine wards at an academic medical center. Exposures  At least 24 hours of any parenteral or oral antibiotic therapy. Main Outcomes and…

Hot Topics: Alzheimer’s Further Linked to Brain Plaques

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Hot Topics in Research, Senile Plaques

Association Between Elevated Brain Amyloid and Subsequent Cognitive Decline Among Cognitively Normal Persons Donohue MC, Sperling RA, Petersen R, al e. Association between elevated brain amyloid and subsequent cognitive decline among cognitively normal persons. JAMA. 2017. 317(22):2305-2316. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6669. Importance  Among cognitively normal individuals, elevated brain amyloid (defined by cerebrospinal fluid assays or positron emission tomography regional summaries) can be related to risk for later Alzheimer-related cognitive decline. Objective  To characterize and quantify the risk for Alzheimer-related cognitive decline among cognitively normal individuals with elevated brain amyloid. Design, Setting, and Participants  Exploratory analyses were conducted with longitudinal cognitive and biomarker data from 445…

Hot Topics: Severe Epilepsy Eased by Compound in Cannabis

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, et al. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the dravet syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21):2011-2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1611618. BACKGROUND The Dravet syndrome is a complex childhood epilepsy disorder that is associated with drug-resistant seizures and a high mortality rate. We studied cannabidiol for the treatment of drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 120 children and young adults with the Dravet syndrome and drug-resistant seizures to receive either cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of 20…