PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Archive for "Internal Medicine"

Category: Internal Medicine

Hot Topics: Flu May Be Spread By Breathing

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community Yan J, Grantham M, Pantelic J, et al. Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2018. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1716561115 Little is known about the amount and infectiousness of influenza virus shed into exhaled breath. This contributes to uncertainty about the importance of airborne influenza transmission. We screened 355 symptomatic volunteers with acute respiratory illness and report 142 cases with confirmed influenza infection who provided 218 paired nasopharyngeal (NP) and 30-minute breath samples (coarse >5-µm and fine…

Hot Topics: CTE Caused by Head Impact, Not Concussions

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Sports Medicine

Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model Tagge C,A., Fisher A,M., Minaeva O,V., et al. Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model. Brain. 2018. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx350. The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To…

Hot Topics: Resistance to HIV Drugs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Rising

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

HIV-1 drug resistance before initiation or re-initiation of first-line antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis Gupta RK, Gregson J, Parkin N, et al. HIV-1 drug resistance before initiation or re-initiation of first-line antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30702-8. Background Pretreatment drug resistance in people initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) might compromise HIV control in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the scale of this problem and whether it is associated with the intiation…

Hot Topics: Antacids Taken During Pregnancy Linked to Asthma in Children

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Pulmonary

Acid-Suppressive Drug Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Childhood Asthma: A Meta-analysis Lai T, Wu M, Liu J, et al. Acid-suppressive drug use during pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2018. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0889. CONTEXT: The association between acid-suppressive drug exposure during pregnancy and childhood asthma has not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on this association to provide further justification for the current studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBSCO Information Services, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from inception until June 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Observational studies in…

Hot Topics: Virtual Reality Games Can Help Stroke Recovery

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Physical Therapy

Virtual Reality Training for Upper Extremity in Subacute Stroke (VIRTUES): A multicenter RCT Brunner, I., Skouen, J. S., Hofstad, H., Aßmus, J., Becker, F., Sanders, A., . . . Verheyden, G. (2017). Virtual reality training for upper extremity in subacute stroke (VIRTUES). Neurology, doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004744 Objective: To compare the effectiveness of upper extremity virtual reality rehabilitation training (VR) to time-matched conventional training (CT) in the subacute phase after stroke. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, single-blind phase III multicenter trial, 120 participants with upper extremity motor impairment within 12 weeks after stroke were consecutively included at 5 rehabilitation institutions. Participants were randomized to either…

Hot Topics: Adolescent Athletes with Limited Hip Range of Motion at Risk for Osteoarthritis

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Rheumatology

Cam Deformities and Limited Hip Range of Motion Are Associated With Early Osteoarthritic Changes in Adolescent Athletes: A Prospective Matched Cohort Study Wyles, C. C., Norambuena, G. A., Howe, B. M., Larson, D. R., Levy, B. A., Yuan, B. J., . . . Sierra, R. J. (2017). Cam deformities and limited hip range of motion are associated with early osteoarthritic changes in adolescent athletes: A prospective matched cohort study. Am J Sports Med, 45(13), 3036-3043. doi:10.1177/0363546517719460 Background: The natural history of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains incompletely understood. In particular, there is limited documentation of joint damage in adolescent patients with limited range…

Hot Topics: New Guidelines Lower Threshold for High Blood Pressure

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Potential U.S. Population Impact of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Guideline Muntner, P., Carey, R. M., Gidding, S., Jones, D. W., Taler, S. J., Wright, J. T., & Whelton, P. K. (2017). Potential U.S. population impact of the 2017 American Ccollege of Cardiology/American Heart Association high blood pressure guideline. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.10.073 Background The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for…

Hot Topics: Wristband Devices Detect Dangerous Epileptic Seizures

Jackie Werner Central Nervous System Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors Onorati, F., Regalia, G., Caborni, C., Migliorini, M., Bender, D., et al. (2017), Multicenter clinical assessment of improved wearable multimodal convulsive seizure detectors. Epilepsia. doi:10.1111/epi.13899 Objective New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. Methods Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used…

Hot Topics: Shortened Tuberculosis Treatment As Effective as Current Recommended Treatment

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Short-course treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: the STREAM trials. Moodley, R., Godec, T. R., & STREAM Trial Team. (2016). Short-course treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: The STREAM trials. European Respiratory Review : An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society, 25(139), 29-35. doi:10.1183/16000617.0080-2015 Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is a threat to global TB control, as suboptimal and poorly tolerated treatment options have resulted in largely unfavourable outcomes for these patients. The last of six cohort studies conducted in Bangladesh which assessed a new shorter regimen using currently available TB drugs showed promising results and offered the possibility of a more acceptable and more effective…

Hot Topics: Ultrasound Therapy Reduces Parkinson’s Tremors

Jackie Werner Central Nervous System Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Safety and Efficacy of Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Patients With Medication-Refractory, Tremor-Dominant Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial Bond, A. E., Shah, B. B., Huss, D. S., et al. (2017). Safety and efficacy of focused ultrasound thalamotomy for patients with medication-refractory, tremor-dominant parkinson disease: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurology. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3098 Importance  Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of focused ultrasound (FUS) thalamotomy in essential tremor, but its effectiveness and safety for managing tremor-dominant Parkinson disease (TDPD) is unknown. Objective  To assess safety and efficacy at 12-month follow-up, accounting for placebo response, of unilateral FUS thalamotomy for patients with TDPD. Design, Setting, and Participants  Of…