PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Archive for "Geriatrics"

Category: Geriatrics

Hot Topics: Palliative Care Lowers Overall Hospital Costs

Jackie Werner Critical Care, Geriatrics

Economics of Palliative Care for Hospitalized Adults With Serious Illness: A Meta-analysis

May P, Normand C, Cassel J, et a. Economics of palliative care for hospitalized adults with serious illness: A meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2018. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0750.

Importance  Economics of care for adults with serious illness is a policy priority worldwide. Palliative care may lower costs for hospitalized adults, but the evidence has important limitations.

Objective  To estimate the association of palliative care consultation (PCC) with direct hospital costs for adults with serious illness.

Data Sources  Systematic searches of the Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, PubMed, CINAHL, and EconLit databases were performed for English-language journal articles using keywords in the domains of palliative care (eg, palliativeterminal) and economics (eg, costutilization), with limiters for hospital and consultation. For Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL, we searched without a time limitation. For PubMed, CINAHL, and EconLit, we searched for articles published after August 1, 2013. Data analysis was performed from April 8, 2017, to September 16, 2017.

Study Selection  Economic evaluations of interdisciplinary PCC for hospitalized adults with at least 1 of 7 illnesses (cancer; heart, liver, or kidney failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; AIDS/HIV; or selected neurodegenerative conditions) in the hospital inpatient setting vs usual care only, controlling for a minimum list of confounders.

Data Extraction and Synthesis  Eight eligible studies were identified, all cohort studies, of which 6 provided sufficient information for inclusion. The study estimated the association of PCC within 3 days of admission with direct hospital costs for each sample and for subsamples defined by primary diagnoses and number of comorbidities at admission, controlling for confounding with an instrumental variable when available and otherwise propensity score weighting. Treatment effect estimates were pooled in the meta-analysis.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Total direct hospital costs.

Results  This study included 6 samples with a total 133 118 patients (range, 1020-82 273), of whom 93.2% were discharged alive (range, 89.0%-98.4%), 40.8% had a primary diagnosis of cancer (range, 15.7%-100.0%), and 3.6% received a PCC (range, 2.2%-22.3%). Mean Elixhauser index scores ranged from 2.2 to 3.5 among the studies. When patients were pooled irrespective of diagnosis, there was a statistically significant reduction in costs (−$3237; 95% CI, −$3581 to −$2893; P < .001). In the stratified analyses, there was a reduction in costs for the cancer (−$4251; 95% CI, −$4664 to −$3837; P < .001) and noncancer (−$2105; 95% CI, −$2698 to −$1511; P < .001) subsamples. The reduction in cost was greater in those with 4 or more comorbidities than for those with 2 or fewer.

Hot Topics: Treating Depression May Counteract Cognitive Impairments

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Diagnostic Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment

Sugarman MA, Alosco ML, Tripodis Y, Steinberg EG, Stern RA. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the diagnostic stability of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2018:1-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170527.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate diagnosis between normal cognition (NC) and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous; many individuals subsequently revert to NC while others remain stable at MCI for several years. Identifying factors associated with this diagnostic instability could assist in defining clinical populations and determining cognitive prognoses.

The current study examined whether neuropsychiatric symptoms could partially account for the temporal instability in cognitive diagnoses.

The sample included 6,763 participants from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set. All participants had NC at baseline, completed at least two follow-up visits (mean duration: 5.5 years), and had no recent neurological conditions. Generalized linear models estimated by generalized estimating equations examined associations between changes in cognitive diagnoses and symptoms on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15).

1,121 participants converted from NC to MCI; 324 reverted back to NC and 242 progressed to AD dementia. Higher symptoms on the GDS-15 and circumscribed symptom domains on the NPI-Q were associated with conversion from NC to MCI and a decreased likelihood of reversion from MCI to NC. Individuals with higher symptoms on NPI-Q Hyperactivity and Mood items were more likely to progress to AD dementia.

The temporal instability of MCI can be partially explained by neuropsychiatric symptoms. Individuals with higher levels of specific symptoms are more likely to progress to AD dementia and less likely to revert to NC. Identification and treatment of these symptoms might support cognitive functioning in older adults.




Hot Topics: Steroid Shots Ineffective For Arthritic Knee Pain

Jackie Werner Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Rheumatology

Effect of Intra-articular Triamcinolone vs Saline on Knee Cartilage Volume and Pain in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Harvey WF, et al. Effect of intra-articular triamcinolone vs saline on knee cartilage volume and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;317(19):1967-1975.

Importance  Synovitis is common and is associated with progression of structural characteristics of knee osteoarthritis. Intra-articular corticosteroids could reduce cartilage damage associated with synovitis but might have adverse effects on cartilage and periarticular bone.

Objective  To determine the effects of intra-articular injection of 40 mg of triamcinolone acetonide every 3 months on progression of cartilage loss and knee pain.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of intra-articular triamcinolone vs saline for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis with ultrasonic features of synovitis in 140 patients. Mixed-effects regression models with a random intercept were used to analyze the longitudinal repeated outcome measures. Patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, Kellgren-Lawrence grades 2 or 3, were enrolled at Tufts Medical Center beginning February 11, 2013; all patients completed the study by January 1, 2015.

Interventions  Intra-articular triamcinolone (n = 70) or saline (n = 70) every 12 weeks for 2 years.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Annual knee magnetic resonance imaging for quantitative evaluation of cartilage volume (minimal clinically important difference not yet defined), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index collected every 3 months (Likert pain subscale range, 0 [no pain] to 20 [extreme pain]; minimal clinically important improvement, 3.94).

Results  Among 140 randomized patients (mean age, 58 [SD, 8] years, 75 women [54%]), 119 (85%) completed the study. Intra-articular triamcinolone resulted in significantly greater cartilage volume loss than did saline for a mean change in index compartment cartilage thickness of −0.21 mm vs −0.10 mm (between-group difference, −0.11 mm; 95% CI, −0.20 to −0.03 mm); and no significant difference in pain (−1.2 vs −1.9; between-group difference, −0.6; 95% CI, −1.6 to 0.3). The saline group had 3 treatment-related adverse events compared with 5 in the triamcinolone group and had a small increase in hemoglobin A1c levels (between-group difference, −0.2%; 95% CI, −0.5% to −0.007%).

Conclusions and Relevance  Among patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, 2 years of intra-articular triamcinolone, compared with intra-articular saline, resulted in significantly greater cartilage volume loss and no significant difference in knee pain. These findings do not support this treatment for patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

Hot Topics: Volunteers Improve Quality of Life for Adults in Palliative Care

Jackie Werner Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research

How effective are volunteers at supporting people in their last year of life? A pragmatic randomised wait-list trial in palliative care (ELSA)

Walshe C, Dodd S, Hill M, et al. How effective are volunteers at supporting people in their last year of life? A pragmatic randomised wait-list trial in palliative care (ELSA). BMC Medicine. 2016;14(1):203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-016-0746-8.

Clinical care alone at the end of life is unlikely to meet all needs. Volunteers are a key resource, acceptable to patients, but there is no evidence on care outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether support from a social action volunteer service is better than usual care at improving quality of life for adults in the last year of life.

A pragmatic, multi-centre wait-list controlled trial, with participants randomly allocated to receive the volunteer support intervention either immediately or after a 4 week wait. Trained volunteers provided tailored face-to-face support including befriending, practical support and signposting to services, primarily provided within the home, typically for 2–3 hours per week. The primary outcome was rate of change of quality of life at 4 weeks (WHO QOL BREF, a general, culturally sensitive measure). Secondary outcomes included rate of change of quality of life at 8 weeks and Loneliness (De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale), social support (mMOS-SS), and reported use of health and social care services at 4 and 8 weeks.

In total, 196 adults (61% (n = 109) female; mean age 72 years) were included in the study. No significant difference was found in main or secondary outcomes at 4 weeks. Rate of change of quality of life showed trends in favour of the intervention (physical quality of life domain: b = 3.98, CI, –0.38 to 8.34; psychological domain: b = 2.59, CI, –2.24 to 7.43; environmental domain: b = 3, CI, –4.13 to 4.91). Adjusted analyses to control for hours of volunteer input found significantly less decrease in physical quality of life in the intervention group (slope (b) 4.43, CI, 0.10 to 8.76). While the intervention also favoured the rate of change of emotional (b = –0.08; CI, –0.52 to 0.35) and social loneliness (b = –0.20; CI, –0.58 to 0.18), social support (b = 0.13; CI, –0.13 to 0.39), and reported use of health and social care professionals (b = 0.16; CI, –0.22 to 0.55), these were not statistically significant. No adverse events were reported.

Clinicians can confidently refer to volunteer services at the end of life. Future research should focus on ‘dose’ to maximise likely impact.