PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Archive for "Biomedical Sciences"

Category: Biomedical Sciences

Hot Topics: Computers Trained to Visually Analyze Living Cells

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research

In Silico Labeling: Predicting Fluorescent Labels in Unlabeled Images Christiansen EM, Yang SJ, Ando DM, et al. In silico labeling: Predicting fluorescent labels in unlabeled images. Cell. 2018;173(3):803.e19. doi: S0092-8674(18)30364-7. Microscopy is a central method in life sciences. Many popular methods, such as antibody labeling, are used to add physical fluorescent labels to specific cellular constituents. However, these approaches have significant drawbacks, including inconsistency; limitations in the number of simultaneous labels because of spectral overlap; and necessary perturbations of the experiment, such as fixing the cells, to generate the measurement. Here, we show that a computational machine-learning approach, which we call…

Hot Topics: Virtual Reality Used to Study How Memories Are Formed

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

CA1 and CA3 differentially support spontaneous retrieval of episodic contexts within human hippocampal subfields Dimsdale-Zucker H, Ritchey M, Ekstrom AD, Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C. CA1 and CA3 differentially support spontaneous retrieval of episodic contexts within human hippocampal subfields. Nature Communications. 2018;9(1):294. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02752-1. The hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial and episodic memory. Mechanistic models predict that hippocampal subfields have computational specializations that differentially support memory. However, there is little empirical evidence suggesting differences between the subfields, particularly in humans. To clarify how hippocampal subfields support human spatial and episodic memory, we developed a virtual reality paradigm where participants passively…

Hot Topics: New Technique “Hotwires” Cells to Induce Endocytosis on Demand

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research

New tools for “hot-wiring” clathrin-mediated endocytosis with temporal and spatial precision Wood LA, Larocque G, Clarke NI, Sarkar S, Royle SJ. New tools for “hot-wiring” clathrin-mediated endocytosis with temporal and spatial precision. J Cell Biol. 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201702188. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major route of receptor internalization at the plasma membrane. Analysis of constitutive CME is difficult because the initiation of endocytic events is unpredictable. When and where a clathrin-coated pit will form and what cargo it will contain are difficult to foresee. Here we describe a series of genetically encoded reporters that allow the initiation of CME on demand. A clathrin-binding…

Hot Topics: Transcriptional Regulator CTCF Found Essential in Immune Response

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research

CTCF orchestrates the germinal centre transcriptional program and prevents premature plasma cell differentiation Pérez-Garcí­a A, Marina-Zárate E, Álvarez-Prado ÁF, Ligos JM, Galjart N, Ramiro AR. CTCF orchestrates the germinal centre transcriptional program and prevents premature plasma cell differentiation. Nature Communications. 2017;8:16067. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms16067. In germinal centres (GC) mature B cells undergo intense proliferation and immunoglobulin gene modification before they differentiate into memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells (PC). GC B-cell-to-PC transition involves a major transcriptional switch that promotes a halt in cell proliferation and the production of secreted immunoglobulins. Here we show that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for the…