PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Archive for "Psychology and Psychiatry"

Category: Psychology and Psychiatry

Hot Topics: Communication Difficulties in Children with Autism Linked to Suicidal Behavior

Jackie Werner Developmental Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics

Autistic Traits and Suicidal Thoughts, Plans, and Self-Harm in Late Adolescence: Population-Based Cohort Study Culpin I, Mars B, Pearson RM, et al. Autistic traits and suicidal thoughts, plans, and self-harm in late adolescence: Population-based cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2018;57(5):320.e6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.01.023. Objective To examine the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnosis and traits in childhood are associated with suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm at 16 years, and that any observed associations are explained by depression at 12 years. Method We examined associations between ASD diagnosis and 4 dichotomized ASD traits (social communication, pragmatic language,…

Hot Topics: Treating Depression May Counteract Cognitive Impairments

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Diagnostic Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment Sugarman MA, Alosco ML, Tripodis Y, Steinberg EG, Stern RA. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the diagnostic stability of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2018:1-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170527. Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate diagnosis between normal cognition (NC) and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous; many individuals subsequently revert to NC while others remain stable at MCI for several years. Identifying factors associated with this diagnostic instability could assist in defining clinical populations and determining cognitive prognoses. Objective: The current study examined whether neuropsychiatric…

Hot Topics: NIH Releases Big Data for Brain Development Research

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Pediatrics, Psychology and Psychiatry

NIH releases first dataset from unprecedented study of adolescent brain development National Institutes of Health. (2018, February 13). NIH releases first dataset from unprecedented study of adolescent brain development [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-releases-first-dataset-unprecedented-study-adolescent-brain-development. The National Institutes of Health Tuesday released to the scientific community an unparalleled dataset from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. To date, more than 7,500 youth and their families have been recruited for the study, well over half the participant goal.  Approximately 30 terabytes of data (about three times the size of the Library of Congress collection), obtained from the first 4,500 participants, will be…

Hot Topics: Ineffective Arthritis Drug Could Treat Opioid Addiction

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Substance Use Disorders

Slowly Signaling G Protein–Biased CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist LY2828360 Suppresses Neuropathic Pain with Sustained Efficacy and Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Dependence Lin X, Dhopeshwarkar AS, Huibregtse M, Mackie K, Hohmann AG. Slowly Signaling G Protein–Biased CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist LY2828360 Suppresses Neuropathic Pain with Sustained Efficacy and Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Dependence. Mol Pharmacol. 2018;93:49-62; doi: 10.1124/mol.117.109355. The CB2 cannabinoid agonist LY2828360 lacked both toxicity and efficacy in a clinical trial for osteoarthritis. Whether LY2828360 suppresses neuropathic pain has not been reported, and its signaling profile is unknown. In vitro, LY2828360 was a slowly acting but efficacious G protein–biased CB2 agonist, inhibiting cAMP…

Hot Topics: Key Molecule Found To Protect Brain From Depression

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders, Psychology and Psychiatry

Loss of eIF4E Phosphorylation Engenders Depression-like Behaviors via Selective mRNA Translation Amorim IS, Kedia S, Kouloulia S, et al. Loss of eIF4E phosphorylation engenders depression-like behaviors via selective mRNA translation. J Neurosci. 2018;38(8):2118-2133. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2673-17.2018. The MAPK/ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway is a cardinal regulator of synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory in the hippocampus. One of major endpoints of this signaling cascade is the 5′ mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E (eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E), which is phosphorylated on Ser 209 by MNK (MAPK-interacting protein kinases) and controls mRNA translation. The precise role of phospho-eIF4E in the brain is yet to…

Hot Topics: Shaming Overweight Children is Harmful

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Psychology and Psychiatry

Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity Pont, S. J., Puhl, R., Cook, S. R., Slusser, W., Section on Obesity , & The Obesity Society. (2017). Stigma experienced by children and adolescents with obesity. Pediatrics, doi:10.1542/peds.2017-3034 The stigmatization of people with obesity is widespread and causes harm. Weight stigma is often propagated and tolerated in society because of beliefs that stigma and shame will motivate people to lose weight. However, rather than motivating positive change, this stigma contributes to behaviors such as binge eating, social isolation, avoidance of health care services, decreased physical activity, and increased weight gain, which worsen obesity…

Hot Topics: Daily Light Therapy May Provide Relief for Bipolar Depression

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders, Psychology and Psychiatry

Adjunctive Bright Light Therapy for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial Sit, D. K., McGowan, J., Wiltrout, C., Diler, R. S., Dills, J., et al. (2017). Adjunctive bright light therapy for bipolar depression: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16101200 Objective: Patients with bipolar disorder have recurrent major depression, residual mood symptoms, and limited treatment options. Building on promising pilot data, the authors conducted a 6-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of adjunctive bright light therapy at midday for bipolar depression. The aims were to determine remission rate, depression symptom level, and rate of…

Hot Topics: Frequent Vaping Encourages Smokers to Quit Tobacco

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Substance Use Disorders

The Relationship of E-Cigarette Use to Cigarette Quit Attempts and Cessation: Insights From a Large, Nationally Representative U.S. Survey David T Levy, PhD, Zhe Yuan, MS, Yuying Luo, MS, David B Abrams, PhD; The Relationship of E-Cigarette Use to Cigarette Quit Attempts and Cessation: Insights From a Large, Nationally Representative U.S. Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx166 Objectives While cessation from cigarettes is a top priority for public health, controversy surrounds the role of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarettes. This study examines the role of e-cigarettes in quit attempts and 3-month cigarette abstinence using a large, recent nationally representative US sample. Methods Data…

Hot Topic: Mind-Body Therapies Dramatically Reduce Pain in Hospital Patients

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry

Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Training and Hypnotic Suggestion for Acute Pain Relief in the Hospital Setting Garland EL, Baker AK, Larsen P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of brief mindfulness training and hypnotic suggestion for acute pain relief in the hospital setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4116-9. Background Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions. Objective We hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to…

Hot Topics: Benefits of Autism Diets and Supplements Questionable

Jackie Werner Developmental Disorders, Hot Topics in Research

Nutritional and Dietary Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review Sathe N, Andrews JC, McPheeters ML, Warren ZE. Nutritional and dietary interventions for autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0346 CONTEXT: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently use special diets or receive nutritional supplements to treat ASD symptoms. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dietary interventions or nutritional supplements in ASD. DATA SOURCES: Databases, including Medline and PsycINFO. STUDY SELECTION: Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: One investigator extracted data with review by a second investigator….