PCOM Library / Hot Topics in Research / Internal Medicine / Neurology / Archive for "Alzheimer Disease"

Category: Alzheimer Disease

Hot Topics: New Technology Could Allow Dementia Patients to Live Alone Longer

Jackie Werner Dementia, Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Health management and pattern analysis of daily living activities of people with dementia using in-home sensors and machine learning techniques Enshaeifar S, Zoha A, Markides A, et al. Health management and pattern analysis of daily living activities of people with dementia using in-home sensors and machine learning techniques. PLOS ONE. 2018;13(5):e0195605. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195605. The number of people diagnosed with dementia is expected to rise in the coming years. Given that there is currently no definite cure for dementia and the cost of care for this condition soars dramatically, slowing the decline and maintaining independent living are important goals for supporting people with dementia….

Hot Topics: Treating Depression May Counteract Cognitive Impairments

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Mood Disorders

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Diagnostic Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment Sugarman MA, Alosco ML, Tripodis Y, Steinberg EG, Stern RA. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the diagnostic stability of mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2018:1-15. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170527. Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate diagnosis between normal cognition (NC) and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, MCI is heterogeneous; many individuals subsequently revert to NC while others remain stable at MCI for several years. Identifying factors associated with this diagnostic instability could assist in defining clinical populations and determining cognitive prognoses. Objective: The current study examined whether neuropsychiatric…

Hot Topics: Alzheimer’s Further Linked to Brain Plaques

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Hot Topics in Research, Senile Plaques

Association Between Elevated Brain Amyloid and Subsequent Cognitive Decline Among Cognitively Normal Persons Donohue MC, Sperling RA, Petersen R, al e. Association between elevated brain amyloid and subsequent cognitive decline among cognitively normal persons. JAMA. 2017. 317(22):2305-2316. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6669. Importance  Among cognitively normal individuals, elevated brain amyloid (defined by cerebrospinal fluid assays or positron emission tomography regional summaries) can be related to risk for later Alzheimer-related cognitive decline. Objective  To characterize and quantify the risk for Alzheimer-related cognitive decline among cognitively normal individuals with elevated brain amyloid. Design, Setting, and Participants  Exploratory analyses were conducted with longitudinal cognitive and biomarker data from 445…

A Comparison of the Prevalence of Dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012

PJ Grier Alzheimer Disease, December, Dementia, Hot Topics in Research

A Comparison of the Prevalence of Dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012 Importance  The aging of the US population is expected to lead to a large increase in the number of adults with dementia, but some recent studies in the United States and other high-income countries suggest that the age-specific risk of dementia may have declined over the past 25 years. Clarifying current and future population trends in dementia prevalence and risk has important implications for patients, families, and government programs. Objective  To compare the prevalence of dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012. Design,…

Visualization of regional tau deposits using 3H-THK5117 in Alzheimer brain tissue

PJ Grier Alzheimer Disease, April, Hot Topics in Research

Visualization of regional tau deposits using 3H-THK5117 in Alzheimer brain tissue Abstract  The accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles, composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau protein, starts spreading early in specific regions in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), correlating with the progression of memory dysfunction. The non-invasive imaging of tau could therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of AD, differentiate it from other dementing disorders and allow evaluation of tau immunization therapy outcomes. In this study we characterized the in vitro binding properties of THK5117, a tentative radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tau brain deposits. Results Saturation and competition binding…

Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4

PJ Grier Dementia, February, Hot Topics in Research, Memory Impairment

Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4 Abstract Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia’s strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to…

Effects of aging on circadian patterns of gene expression in the human prefrontal cortex

PJ Grier Brain, Dementia, Hot Topics in Research, Memory Impairment, Neurology

Effects of aging on circadian patterns of gene expression in the human prefrontal cortex With aging, significant changes in circadian rhythms occur, including a shift in phase toward a “morning” chronotype and a loss of rhythmicity in circulating hormones. However, the effects of aging on molecular rhythms in the human brain have remained elusive. Here, we used a previously described time-of-death analysis to identify transcripts throughout the genome that have a significant circadian rhythm in expression in the human prefrontal cortex [Brodmann’s area 11 (BA11) and BA47]. Expression levels were determined by microarray analysis in 146 individuals. Rhythmicity in expression…