Category: Brain

Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

PJ Grier April, Brain, Hot Topics in Research

Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement Importance  Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. Objective  To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. Design, Setting, and Participants  Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of…

Zebrafish Reel in Phenotypic Suppressors of Autism

PJ Grier Brain, Hot Topics in Research, March

Zebrafish Reel in Phenotypic Suppressors of Autism Chemical genetics can help decipher novel pathways underlying neurodevelopmental psychiatric impairments. Hoffman et al. (2016) utilized behavioral profiling of psychoactive compounds in zebrafish and identified estrogens as suppressors of a phenotype resulting from loss of an autism risk gene. Neuron, Volume 89, Issue 4, 17 February 2016, Pages 673–675

Paradoxical Motor Recovery From a First Stroke After Induction of a Second Stroke: Reopening a Postischemic Sensitive Period

PJ Grier Brain, Cardiology, February, Hot Topics in Research

Paradoxical Motor Recovery From a First Stroke After Induction of a Second Stroke: Reopening a Postischemic Sensitive Period Abstract Background and objective. Prior studies have suggested that after stroke there is a time-limited period of increased responsiveness to training as a result of heightened plasticity—a sensitive period thought to be induced by ischemia itself. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that most training-associated recovery after a caudal forelimb area (CFA) stroke occurs in the first week and is attributable to reorganization in a medial premotor area (AGm). The existence of a stroke-induced sensitive period leads to the counterintuitive…

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study

PJ Grier Brain, February, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pediatrics

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study Background Compared with traditional photon radiotherapy, proton radiotherapy irradiates less normal tissue and might improve health outcomes associated with photon radiotherapy by reducing toxic effects to normal tissue. We did a trial to assess late complications, acute side-effects, and survival associated with proton radiotherapy in children with medulloblastoma. Methods In this non-randomised, open-label, single-centre, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 3–21 years who had medulloblastoma. Patients had craniospinal irradiation of 18–36 Gy radiobiological equivalents (GyRBE) delivered at 1·8 GyRBE per fraction followed by a boost…

Effects of aging on circadian patterns of gene expression in the human prefrontal cortex

PJ Grier Brain, Dementia, Hot Topics in Research, Memory Impairment, Neurology

Effects of aging on circadian patterns of gene expression in the human prefrontal cortex With aging, significant changes in circadian rhythms occur, including a shift in phase toward a “morning” chronotype and a loss of rhythmicity in circulating hormones. However, the effects of aging on molecular rhythms in the human brain have remained elusive. Here, we used a previously described time-of-death analysis to identify transcripts throughout the genome that have a significant circadian rhythm in expression in the human prefrontal cortex [Brodmann’s area 11 (BA11) and BA47]. Expression levels were determined by microarray analysis in 146 individuals. Rhythmicity in expression…

Findings from Structural MR Imaging in Military Traumatic Brain Injury

PJ Grier Brain, Hot Topics in Research, Neurosurgery, Radiology

Findings from Structural MR Imaging in Military Traumatic Brain Injury Purpose To describe the initial neuroradiology findings in a cohort of military service members with primarily chronic mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast by using an integrated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center institutional review board and is compliant with HIPAA guidelines. All participants were military service members or dependents recruited between August 2009 and August 2014. There were 834 participants with a history of TBI and 42 participants in a control group without TBI…