PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research" (Page 2)

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics: Combination of Traditional and New Drugs Effective for Esophageal Cancer

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Oncology

Inhibition of pRB pathway differentially modulates apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells Soletti RC, Biasoli D, Rodrigues NALV, et al. Inhibition of pRB pathway differentially modulates apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Translational Oncology. 2017;10(5):726-733. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2017.06.008. Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current chemotherapy regimens include a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin, but more efficient therapy strategies are needed to increase 5-year survival. Alterations in the signaling pathway of the tumor suppressor gene Rb-1, which encodes a phosphoprotein (pRB) that negatively regulates the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, are present in 70% of all tumors, but…

Hot Topic: Cannabis May Ease Neuropathic Pain

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review Nugent SM, Morasco BJ, O’Neil ME, al e. The effects of cannabis among adults with chronic pain and an overview of general harms: A systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. doi: 10.7326/M17-0155 Background: Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain. Purpose: To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and several…

Hot Topic: Mind-Body Therapies Dramatically Reduce Pain in Hospital Patients

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry

Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Mindfulness Training and Hypnotic Suggestion for Acute Pain Relief in the Hospital Setting Garland EL, Baker AK, Larsen P, et al. Randomized controlled trial of brief mindfulness training and hypnotic suggestion for acute pain relief in the hospital setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4116-9. Background Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions. Objective We hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to…

Hot Topics: Oral Bacteria Can Help Determine Time of Death

Jackie Werner Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Hot Topics in Research

Dynamics of the oral microbiota as a tool to estimate time since death Adserias-Garriga J, Quijada NM, Hernandez M, Rodríguez Lázaro D, Steadman D, Garcia-Gil L. Dynamics of the oral microbiota as a tool to estimate time since death. Mol Oral Microbiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/omi.12191. The oral cavity harbors one of the most diverse microbiomes in the human body. It has been shown to be the second most complex in the body after the gastrointestinal tract. Upon death, the indigenous microorganisms lead to the decomposition of the carcass. Therefore, the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract microbiomes play a key role in human decomposition. The…

Hot Topics: Customized 3-D Models Effectively Train Children’s Surgeons

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics, Surgery

Patient-specific 3D models aid planning for triplane proximal femoral osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis Cherkasskiy L, Caffrey JP, Szewczyk AF, et al. Patient-specific 3D models aid planning for triplane proximal femoral osteotomy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Child Orthop. 2017;11(2):147-153. https://doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548-11-170277. Purpose Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) can result in a complex three-dimensional (3D) deformity of the proximal femur. A three-plane proximal femoral osteotomy (TPFO) has been described to improve hip mechanics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using 3D print technology to aid in surgical planning. Patients and Methods Fifteen children treated with TPFO…

Hot Topics: Anti-Statin Internet Trend Could Threaten Lives

Jackie Werner Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research

Statin Denial: An Internet-Driven Cult With Deadly Consequences Nissen SE. Statin Denial: An Internet-Driven Cult With Deadly Consequences. Ann Intern Med. doi: 10.7326/M17-1566 The reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during the past 3 decades represents one of the great triumphs of contemporary medicine. In 1987, the age-adjusted mortality rate in the U.S. population for cardiovascular disease was 357 in 100 000, decreasing to 167 in 100 000 by 2014 (1). Although precisely gauging the relative contributions of various public health measures to the decline in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is impossible, most critical observers consider the introduction of statins in 1987…

Hot Topics: Monthly Injections Could Replace Pills for HIV Treatment

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial Margolis DA, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Stellbrink H, et al. Long-acting intramuscular cabotegravir and rilpivirine in adults with HIV-1 infection (LATTE-2): 96-week results of a randomised, open-label, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31917-7. Summary Background Cabotegravir and rilpivirine are antiretroviral drugs in development as long-acting injectable formulations. The LATTE-2 study evaluated long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine for maintenance of HIV-1 viral suppression through 96 weeks. Methods In this randomised, phase 2b, open-label study, treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1 initially received oral cabotegravir 30…

Hot Topics: Transcriptional Regulator CTCF Found Essential in Immune Response

Jackie Werner Biomedical Sciences, Hot Topics in Research

CTCF orchestrates the germinal centre transcriptional program and prevents premature plasma cell differentiation Pérez-Garcí­a A, Marina-Zárate E, Álvarez-Prado ÁF, Ligos JM, Galjart N, Ramiro AR. CTCF orchestrates the germinal centre transcriptional program and prevents premature plasma cell differentiation. Nature Communications. 2017;8:16067. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms16067. In germinal centres (GC) mature B cells undergo intense proliferation and immunoglobulin gene modification before they differentiate into memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells (PC). GC B-cell-to-PC transition involves a major transcriptional switch that promotes a halt in cell proliferation and the production of secreted immunoglobulins. Here we show that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for the…

Hot Topics: Unnecessary Antibiotics in Hospitals Can Cause Adverse Events

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Internal Medicine, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients Tamma PD, Avdic E, Li DX, Dzintars K, Cosgrove SE. Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients. JAMA Intern Med. Published online June 12, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.1938 Importance  Estimates of the incidence of overall antibiotic-associated adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients are generally unavailable. Objective  To describe the incidence of antibiotic-associated ADEs for adult inpatients receiving systemic antibiotic therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort of adult inpatients admitted to general medicine wards at an academic medical center. Exposures  At least 24 hours of any parenteral or oral antibiotic therapy. Main Outcomes and…

Hot Topics: SIDS Infants Show High Levels of Serotonin in Blood

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics

High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome Haynes RL, Frelinger AL, Giles EK, et al. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2017. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1617374114. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical in homeostatic regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIDS is associated with an alteration in serum…