Category: Hot Topics in Research

Hot Topics: SIDS Infants Show High Levels of Serotonin in Blood

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pediatrics

High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome Haynes RL, Frelinger AL, Giles EK, et al. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2017. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1617374114. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical in homeostatic regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIDS is associated with an alteration in serum…

Hot Topics: Alzheimer’s Further Linked to Brain Plaques

Jackie Werner Alzheimer Disease, Hot Topics in Research, Senile Plaques

Association Between Elevated Brain Amyloid and Subsequent Cognitive Decline Among Cognitively Normal Persons Donohue MC, Sperling RA, Petersen R, al e. Association between elevated brain amyloid and subsequent cognitive decline among cognitively normal persons. JAMA. 2017. 317(22):2305-2316. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.6669. Importance  Among cognitively normal individuals, elevated brain amyloid (defined by cerebrospinal fluid assays or positron emission tomography regional summaries) can be related to risk for later Alzheimer-related cognitive decline. Objective  To characterize and quantify the risk for Alzheimer-related cognitive decline among cognitively normal individuals with elevated brain amyloid. Design, Setting, and Participants  Exploratory analyses were conducted with longitudinal cognitive and biomarker data from 445…

Hot Topics: Benefits of Autism Diets and Supplements Questionable

Jackie Werner Developmental Disorders, Hot Topics in Research

Nutritional and Dietary Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review Sathe N, Andrews JC, McPheeters ML, Warren ZE. Nutritional and dietary interventions for autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-0346 CONTEXT: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently use special diets or receive nutritional supplements to treat ASD symptoms. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dietary interventions or nutritional supplements in ASD. DATA SOURCES: Databases, including Medline and PsycINFO. STUDY SELECTION: Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: One investigator extracted data with review by a second investigator….

Hot Topics: Many Drugs Face Safety Issues After FDA Approval

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Pharmaceutical Sciences

Postmarket Safety Events Among Novel Therapeutics Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration Between 2001 and 2010 Downing NS, Shah ND, Aminawung JA, et al. Postmarket safety events among novel therapeutics approved by the US food and drug administration between 2001 and 2010. JAMA. 2017;317(18):1854-1863. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.5150. Importance  Postmarket safety events of novel pharmaceuticals and biologics occur when new safety risks are identified after initial regulatory approval of these therapeutics. These safety events can change how novel therapeutics are used in clinical practice and inform patient and clinician decision making. Objectives  To characterize the frequency of postmarket safety events…

Hot Topics: Severe Epilepsy Eased by Compound in Cannabis

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology

Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, et al. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the dravet syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21):2011-2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1611618. BACKGROUND The Dravet syndrome is a complex childhood epilepsy disorder that is associated with drug-resistant seizures and a high mortality rate. We studied cannabidiol for the treatment of drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 120 children and young adults with the Dravet syndrome and drug-resistant seizures to receive either cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of 20…

Hot Topics: Steroid Shots Ineffective For Arthritic Knee Pain

Jackie Werner Geriatrics, Hot Topics in Research, Rheumatology

Effect of Intra-articular Triamcinolone vs Saline on Knee Cartilage Volume and Pain in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Harvey WF, et al. Effect of intra-articular triamcinolone vs saline on knee cartilage volume and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;317(19):1967-1975. Importance  Synovitis is common and is associated with progression of structural characteristics of knee osteoarthritis. Intra-articular corticosteroids could reduce cartilage damage associated with synovitis but might have adverse effects on cartilage and periarticular bone. Objective  To determine the effects of intra-articular injection of 40 mg of triamcinolone acetonide every 3…

Hot Topics: Marketing Restrictions Change Prescribing Patterns

Jackie Werner Ethics, Hot Topics in Research

Association Between Academic Medical Center Pharmaceutical Detailing Policies and Physician Prescribing Larkin I, Ang D, Steinhart J, Chao M, Patterson M, Sah S, Wu T, Schoenbaum M, Hutchins D, Brennan T, Loewenstein G. Association Between Academic Medical Center Pharmaceutical Detailing Policies and Physician Prescribing. JAMA. 2017;317(17):1785-1795. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.4039 Importance  In an effort to regulate physician conflicts of interest, some US academic medical centers (AMCs) enacted policies restricting pharmaceutical representative sales visits to physicians (known as detailing) between 2006 and 2012. Little is known about the effect of these policies on physician prescribing. Objective  To analyze the association between detailing policies enacted…

Hot Topics: Most Pediatric Flu Deaths Could Be Prevented With Flu Shot

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Infectious Disease

Influenza vaccine effectiveness against pediatric deaths: 2010–2014 Flannery B, Reynolds SB, Blanton L, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness against pediatric deaths: 2010–2014. Pediatrics. 2017;139(5). doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-4244. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths since 2004 has shown that most deaths occur in unvaccinated children. We assessed whether influenza vaccination reduced the risk of influenza-associated death in children and adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a case–cohort analysis comparing vaccination uptake among laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths with estimated vaccination coverage among pediatric cohorts in the United States. Case vaccination and high-risk status were determined by case investigation. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates…

Hot Topics: PTSD in Women Strongly Linked to Genetics

Jackie Werner Anxiety Disorders, Hot Topics in Research, Psychology and Psychiatry

Largest GWAS of PTSD (N=20 070) yields genetic overlap with schizophrenia and sex differences in heritability Duncan L,E., Ratanatharathorn A, Aiello A,E., et al. Largest GWAS of PTSD (N=20thinsp]070) yields genetic overlap with schizophrenia and sex differences in heritability. Mol Psychiatry. 2017. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder group (PGC-PTSD) combined genome-wide case–control molecular genetic data across 11 multiethnic studies to quantify PTSD heritability, to examine potential shared genetic risk with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder and to identify risk loci for PTSD. Examining 20 730 individuals, we report a molecular genetics-based heritability estimate (h2SNP) for European-American females of 29%…

Hot Topics: First Tardive Dyskinesia Drug Approved by FDA

Jackie Werner Hot Topics in Research, Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry

FDA approves first drug to treat tardive dyskinesia Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). FDA approves first drug to treat tardive dyskinesia. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm552418.htm. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today [April 11, 2017] approved Ingrezza (valbenazine) capsules to treat adults with tardive dyskinesia. This is the first drug approved by the FDA for this condition. Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive involuntary movements, usually of the jaw, lips and tongue, such as grimacing, sticking out the tongue and smacking the lips. Some affected people also experience involuntary movement of the…