PCOM Library / Archive for "Hot Topics in Research" (Page 8)

Category: Hot Topics in Research

Atrial fibrillation as risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

PJ Grier Atrial Fibrillation, Cardiology, Hot Topics in Research, March

Atrial fibrillation as risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies Abstract Objective To determine whether atrial fibrillation is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men. Design Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Data sources Studies published between January 1966 and March 2015, identified through a systematic search of Medline and Embase and review of references. Eligibility for selecting studies Cohort studies with a minimum of 50 participants with and 50 without atrial fibrillation that reported sex specific associations between atrial fibrillation and all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality,…

Zebrafish Reel in Phenotypic Suppressors of Autism

PJ Grier Brain, Hot Topics in Research, March

Zebrafish Reel in Phenotypic Suppressors of Autism Chemical genetics can help decipher novel pathways underlying neurodevelopmental psychiatric impairments. Hoffman et al. (2016) utilized behavioral profiling of psychoactive compounds in zebrafish and identified estrogens as suppressors of a phenotype resulting from loss of an autism risk gene. Neuron, Volume 89, Issue 4, 17 February 2016, Pages 673–675

Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities

PJ Grier Hot Topics in Research, March, Pediatrics

Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities OBJECTIVE: Transgender children who have socially transitioned, that is, who identify as the gender “opposite” their natal sex and are supported to live openly as that gender, are increasingly visible in society, yet we know nothing about their mental health. Previous work with children with gender identity disorder (GID; now termed gender dysphoria) has found remarkably high rates of anxiety and depression in these children. Here we examine, for the first time, mental health in a sample of socially transitioned transgender children. METHODS: A community-based national sample of transgender,…

Disseminating Justified, Well-Designed, and Well-Executed Studies Despite Nonsignificant Tests

PJ Grier February, Hot Topics in Research, Research Commentary

Disseminating Justified, Well-Designed, and Well-Executed Studies Despite Nonsignificant Tests To the Editor In her editorial1 published in JAMA Psychiatry, Dr Kraemer gives important insights into using covariates, thereby adding to her large body of highly valuable publications…   Gunther Meinlschmidt, PhD; Jan K. Woike, PhD; Marion Tegethoff, PhD JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(1):88-89. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2259.

Disseminating Justified, Well-Designed, and Well-Executed Studies With Nonsignificant Tests—Reply

PJ Grier February, Hot Topics in Research, Research Commentary

Disseminating Justified, Well-Designed, and Well-Executed Studies With Nonsignificant Tests—Reply In Reply I wholeheartedly agree with the main point made by Meinlschmidt et al that well-justified, well-designed, and well-executed (non–poorly justified, designed, or executed [PJDE]) randomized clinical trials warrant dissemination—statistically significant or not. Crucial is whether a randomized clinical trial advances knowledge…   Helena Chmura Kraemer, PhD1 JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(1):89-90. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2301.

Paradoxical Motor Recovery From a First Stroke After Induction of a Second Stroke: Reopening a Postischemic Sensitive Period

PJ Grier Brain, Cardiology, February, Hot Topics in Research

Paradoxical Motor Recovery From a First Stroke After Induction of a Second Stroke: Reopening a Postischemic Sensitive Period Abstract Background and objective. Prior studies have suggested that after stroke there is a time-limited period of increased responsiveness to training as a result of heightened plasticity—a sensitive period thought to be induced by ischemia itself. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that most training-associated recovery after a caudal forelimb area (CFA) stroke occurs in the first week and is attributable to reorganization in a medial premotor area (AGm). The existence of a stroke-induced sensitive period leads to the counterintuitive…

Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4

PJ Grier Dementia, February, Hot Topics in Research, Memory Impairment

Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4 Abstract Schizophrenia is a heritable brain illness with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. Schizophrenia’s strongest genetic association at a population level involves variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, but the genes and molecular mechanisms accounting for this have been challenging to identify. Here we show that this association arises in part from many structurally diverse alleles of the complement component 4 (C4) genes. We found that these alleles generated widely varying levels of C4A and C4B expression in the brain, with each common C4 allele associating with schizophrenia in proportion to…

Association between sleeping difficulty and type 2 diabetes in women

PJ Grier Diabetes, February, Hot Topics in Research

Association between sleeping difficulty and type 2 diabetes in women Abstract Aims/hypothesis Sleeping difficulty has been associated with type 2 diabetes in some prior studies. Whether the observed associations are independent of health behaviours, other cardiovascular risk factors or other sleep disorders is unclear. Methods We analysed data from 133,353 women without diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, 2000–2010) and the NHSII (2001–2011). Sleeping difficulty was assessed as having difficulty falling or staying asleep ‘all of the time’ or ‘most of the time’ at baseline (2000 in NHS and 2001 in NHSII). Results…

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study

PJ Grier Brain, February, Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Pediatrics

Long-term toxic effects of proton radiotherapy for paediatric medulloblastoma: a phase 2 single-arm study Background Compared with traditional photon radiotherapy, proton radiotherapy irradiates less normal tissue and might improve health outcomes associated with photon radiotherapy by reducing toxic effects to normal tissue. We did a trial to assess late complications, acute side-effects, and survival associated with proton radiotherapy in children with medulloblastoma. Methods In this non-randomised, open-label, single-centre, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 3–21 years who had medulloblastoma. Patients had craniospinal irradiation of 18–36 Gy radiobiological equivalents (GyRBE) delivered at 1·8 GyRBE per fraction followed by a boost…

Prostate cancer discovery may make it easier to kill cancer cells

PJ Grier Hot Topics in Research, Oncology, Prostate, Uncategorized

Checkpoint Kinase 2 Negatively Regulates Androgen Sensitivity and Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Abstract: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, and curing metastatic disease remains a significant challenge. Nearly all patients with disseminated prostate cancer initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but virtually all patients will relapse and develop incurable castrationresistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A high-throughput RNAi screen to identify signaling pathways regulating prostate cancer cell growth led to our discovery that checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) knockdown dramatically increased prostate cancer growth and hypersensitized cells to low androgen levels. Mechanistic investigations revealed that…